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As we begin this section, it’s important to remember that what we will go on to discuss is amodel of bonding, that is based on a particularmodel of the atom. You will remember from section1 that a model is arepresentation of what is happening in reality. In the model of the atom that has been used so far, the atom is made up of a central nucleus, surrounded by electrons that are arranged in ﬁxed energy levels (also sometimes calledshells). Within each energy level, electrons move inorbitals of diﬀerent shapes. The electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom are called thevalence electrons. This model of the atom is useful in trying to understand how diﬀerent types of bonding take place between atoms.
You will remember from these earlier discussions of electrons and energy levels in the atom, that electrons always try to occupy thelowest possible energy level. In the same way, an atom also prefers to exist at the lowest possible energy state so that it is moststable. An atom is most stable when all its valence electron orbitals arefull. In other words, the outer energy level of the atom contains the maximum number of electrons that it can. A stable atom is also an
unreactiveone, and is unlikely to bond with other atoms. This explains why the noble gases are unreactive and why they exist as atoms, rather than as molecules. Look for example at the electron conﬁguration of neon (1s2 2s2 3p6). Neon has eight valence electrons in its valence
There are equations to convert between Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvin.
Take the temperature in Celsius and multiply 1.8.
Add 32 degrees.
The result is degrees Fahrenheit.