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Oh dear... lets see. Transcription is the process of coding mRNA (Messenger RNA) to DNA (DeoxyRibonucleic acid). To transcribe mRNA to DNA, you need to set your DNA sequence into groups of codons. Each codon is made up of 3 nucleotides. There are 4 nucleotides found in DNA: 2 purines (Adenine and Guanine) 2 pyrimidines (Cytosine and Thymine) Purines and Pyrimidines are complementary to each other. It is important to remember that the complementary of Adenine is Thymine, and the complementary nucleotide of Guanine is Cytosine. This can easily be remembered by remembering the first letters, A-T and G-C. You can remember it by the saying: [A] [T]eam likes [G]irl scout [C]ookies. ~~~ Now back to transcription: Lets say you have a DNA sequence that reads: TAC CTA GGT TCA ATT TAC the complementary pair would be: AUG GAU CCA AGU UAA AUG. The U stands for Uracil, which is found in RNA. Thymine is never found in RNA, Uracil is never found in DNA, and this is how you can tell RNA and DNA sequences apart. The complements to Adenine (A) are Thymine (T) and Uracil (U). The process of going from TAC CTA GGT TCA ATT TAC to AUG GAU CCA AGU UAA AUG is called TRANSCRIPTION (DNA -> mRNA). Each set of 3 mRNA nucleotides are your codons. mRNA codes for your amino acids. --- Now for translation: Translation is the process of going from mRNA (messenger RNA) to tRNA (transfer RNA). To translate, again you use the complementary pairs: mRNA: AUG GAU CCA AGU UAA AUG tRNA: UAC CUA GGU UCA AUU UAC. The sets of 3 tRNA nucleotides are called Anti Codons. --- So, we went from DNA: TAC CTA GGT TCA ATT TAC to (Transcription) mRNA: AUG GAU CCA AGU UAA AUG to (Translation) tRNA: UAC CUA GGU UCA AUU UAC. Just remember: DNA -> Transcription -> mRNA -> Translation -> tRNA. DNA: A-T G-C Adenine - Thymine Guanine - Cytosine "A Team likes Girl scout Cookies) RNA: A-U G-C Adenine - Uracil Guanine - Cytosine "All Unicorns like Girl scout Cookies) mRNA codons code for your amino acids. ~~~
Anyone correct me if i'm wrong :)
right on! All I would add is that the the role of the tRNA is the actual translator for mRNA. Each tRNA molecule attaches to a specific amino acid. As the codons of the mRNA pair with the anticodons of tRNA, the amino acids are attached to the growing polypeptide chain by a ribosome. Plus transcription is occurring in the nucleus, and translation is out in the cytoplasm.