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wind is named for where it is coming from...so a westery wind is coming from the west
a northern wind comes in from the north
so I would think that wind coming in from the west would effect the west side of Europe. As for how we know wind has an influence on climate: that is probably class specific but wind carries clouds which carry moisture and wind coming off oceans have their temperatures moderated by the temp of the water to they are ummm more temperate so areas near the ocean have smaller temp swings. But that class was long ago there are probably specific terms you are supposed to be using for all of that. Mediterranean, coastal, windward and lee are probably involved.