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1. Cell theory: the theory says that new cells are formed from other existing cells, and that the cell is a fundamental unit of structure, function and organization in all living organisms.
2. Central dogma of molecular biology: the central dogma of molecular biology deals with the detailed residue-by-residue transfer of sequential information. It states that information cannot be transferred back from protein to either protein or nucleic acid.In other words, the process of producing proteins is irreversible: a protein cannot be used to create DNA.
New species and inherited traits are the product of evolution: Evolution (also known as biological or organic evolution) is the change over time in one or more inherited traits found in populations of organisms. Inherited traits are particular distinguishing characteristics, including anatomical, biochemical or behavioural characteristics, that are passed on from one generation to the next.
3. Genes are the basic unit of heredity: Gene is a name given to some stretches of DNA and RNA that code for a type of protein or for an RNA chain that has a function in the organism. Living things depend on genes, as they specify all proteins and functional RNA chains. Genes hold the information to build and maintain an organism's cells and pass genetic traits to offspring, although some organelles (e.g. mitochondria) are self-replicating and are not coded for by the organism's DNA.
4. An organism regulates its internal environment to maintain a stable and constant condition
5. Living organisms consume and transform energy.