can u tell me in simple words the summery of French revolution chapter
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The french were sick of the famine that was abroad, so they called for a revolution. After many failed attempts and many beheadings (two of them being the king and queen) the attempts failed and Napoleon Bonapart stepped into office beginning his attempt to take over all of Europe. They later revolted again and were successful but that was much later.
The French had been involved in expensive wars. So, the treasury was empty and France had a huge debt when Louis XVI took over. So, he started imposing higher taxes. Besides there was shortage of food due to bad harvests (caused by bad weather) and bread prices soared. Many businesses failed and closed shop. The poor were without jobs and were being crushed from all sides and faced death due to starvation. When the government failed to address their problems, they decided to revolt. They wanted to end monarchy and bring in democracy.
In the 1780s the estates of the realm were the broad social orders in France. There were three estates: the clergy, the nobility, and commoners.
The French Revolution mainly started because of a financial crisis but also because the commoners could no longer stand the priviliges owned by higher estates. Whereas there was a rise of new social groups among the commoners such as the merchant or financial bourgeoisie.
In 1788, under Louis XVI, France was a divine monarchy. The king had its power from God.
Besides the so called Philosophie des Lumières had a huge impact on the on going events. Especially in litterature. Famous writers like Rousseau, Diderot, Voltaire or Montesquieu were all against the Monarchy and were advocating the British or Dutch political doctrine
Although Louis XVI tried to make political reforms the situation was too complicated because higher estates didn't want to give away their priviliges.
Thus in May 1789, the king called for the meeting of the Etats Généraux at Versailles. The assembly was composed the clergy, the nobility, and commoners. The commoners deputes were ignored and so they proclaimed Le Serment du Jeu de Paume. They undertake not to separate before giving a written constitution to France.
This first led to the rebellion of the people of Paris - La Bataille des Tuileries - and eventually all over France. An important and symbolic day was July the 14th 1789, when the people of Paris took the Prison of La Bastille. It was also during the Revolution that the current National Anthem - La Marseillaise - was sung for the first time. Eventually the déclaration of Human Rights was declared and the Revolution officially ended July 17th 1790 with La Fête de la Fédération when France became a limited monarchy. July 17th whick is still nowday the National Celebration.
But quickly the King will be removed and in September 1792 France became a Republic. the King will be judge and guillotined in January 21st 1793.
This Revolution brought many changes, ideas and since then France never remained the same: political instabilities until 1945, wars, etc.