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You definitely want to use a loop. Either a for loop or while loop would do the trick. Each time the program goes through the loop, have it change the value of a variable. Then, before moving to the next iteration of the loop, have it test the value of the variable using something like an if statement. Conditions of the if statement(s) could tell the program to keep looping and trying new variables if it doesn't get the desired result or to stop and print or return an answer if it does get the desired result.
I hope this helps in general. I'd be happy to give you more tips if you want to share more specifics about what you'd like the program to do.
I'm learning, too, but I have had a lot of success with writing out what I'd like the program to do in regular words and then converting them to the appropriate code!
To expand slightly on JonathanFichters answer, you may want to consider whether you need to use a list or dicionary, as a way of holding all the different variables or just a range if they are consecutive or stepped numbers.
Build a list of values then iterate across it with the for statement:
the_list = [1, 2, 3, 401, 55.006]
for n in the_list:
print n * 2