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eistein+newton+gallileo=_me

  • 3 years ago

how did the development of clocks shape up societies and cultures and and how can we explain the significance of such a device in the history of tech

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  1. bkaps
    • 3 years ago
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    Before the invention of the clock, the major world industry was agriculture, so clocks were unnecessary in the daily life of the individual. Clocks became available before the industrial revolution, but as economies began to industrialize, clocks started to be redly used by the people who ran factories as a way to decide when people worked. This created a culture shift in how a day is measured. Before clocks and the industrial revolution, a day in the life of the individual was governed by the sun. He woke up when the sun rose and went to sleep when the sun set. Clocks changed this. The life of the industrial worker, because of the clock, was governed by hours. While in retrospective the impact of the clock may seem minimal, this shift from rising with the sun to living based on specific hours was a fundamental shift in the way people lived. In short, during and after the industrial revolution, clocks mechanized and standardized how we lived our lives. I hope that explanation made some sense.

  2. jkrisko00
    • 3 years ago
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    The clock had a more significant affect on travel (rather an accurate portable clock) than anything else. When crossing oceans, large unexplored land masses, or even small seas like the medditeranean - the stars were the travelers only means of navigation. Navigation by ships and planes depends on the ability to measure latitude and longitude. Latitude is fairly easy to determine through knowledge of the stars, but the measurement of longitude requires accurate measurement of time. This need was a major motivation for the development of accurate mechanical clocks. John Harrison created the first highly accurate marine chronometer in the mid-18th century. The Noon gun in Cape Town still fires an accurate signal to allow ships to check their chronometers.

  3. jkrisko00
    • 3 years ago
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    Another thing to consider when asking 'how did the development of clocks shape societies and cultures' is ancient astronomical clocks. Not all clocks are mechanical like modern day ones. Think of the sun-dial. The monoliths of ancient times were beleived to also be clocks. Stonehenge for example has stones that precisely line up with the sun of the summer and winter solstace, moon phases, and things of that nature. Knowing exactly what time of year or month it is, they could plant and harvest crops at exactly the right time. If they kept accurate records, this stone clock would have given them an accurate calandar as well. Ancient god-kings would prove their god-like powers by using their celestial clocks to predict unexplainable phenomenon. The priests and kings of the Aztecs for example, were believed to have powers and connections to the sun gods (this is what their people believed, not us). Imagine you are an Aztec farmer and the sun is not only the thing that gives heat and grows your crops, but is a living entity that you have to please in order to persuade it to rise every morning. The king in power has access to a celestial clock and records of celestial bodies handed down from generations before. Using this imformation he knows there will be a full solar eclipse scheduled at mid-day. He gathers all his people to his temple and tells them the sun god is angry with them but if they bring offerings of gold and virgins to him, he can sway the sun back to their favor. In front of all the people in the village he shouts out to the sun asking to give a sign if he is angry with them. The eclipse begins and the people are scared out of their minds that the sun is disappearing right in front of them. The priest then shouts out to the people for them to bring him the gold and gifts(that he will use to make himself unimaginably rich and powerful for the rest of his life). He then shouts out to sun and commands it to come back. The solar eclipse ends and the people believe this man has power they can't understand. So their whole society and culture has changed because this man could predict solar and lunar eclipses with his stone age clock and calandar.

  4. eistein+newton+gallileo=_me
    • 3 years ago
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    guys if can you base your arguments to certain individuals who help in the development of clocks over time please can you kindly also help by showing how this affected people especially THE ROMAN EMPIRE and the societies that surrounded it...please...

  5. jkrisko00
    • 3 years ago
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    Ah, the Roman Empire. Pretty much all of our current terminology we use regarding time and the keeping of time originated in Roman times. Our calandar is based on the Roman calandar. All 12 months, in order, and the number of days, even feb on leap years, are the same then as they are now. It was around 50 B.C. in the Julian Reform, that the calandar was based on the year being one rotation of the earth around the sun. We also use the Roman "week". They borrowed that from the Jews who obviously set that up from the old testament account of God creating the heavens and earth in seven days (actually six, then rested the seventh). They named the seven days after planets. The other Latin based languages, such as spanish, much more closely resemble the original Roman names than english. But Sunday to Saturday in english translation is : Sun's day, Luna's (moon's) day, Mar's day, Mercury's day, Jupiter's day, Venus' day, and Saturn's day. It's just english for some reason that differed from the other latin languages and uses Germanic dieties for tues - thurs. But the seven day week came about a couple hundred years after the new 365 day year.

  6. jkrisko00
    • 3 years ago
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    As far as accurate time-keeping, sun dials were common in Rome. There were several of them around the market areas, as this told people how much time they had before the shops would open and close. Many of the great obelisks(spelling?) were erected not just as monuments but to function as gigantic sun dials as well. They also used mechanical water clocks as well. I think Romans got this technology from the Alexandrians, who got it from the Chinese. Water clocks had been used elsewhere hundreds of years before the romans, but they perfected them. Since the Romans, being masters of architecture, could bring a steady and constand supply of water all over the Roman empire with their aquaducts, water clocks caught on fast and spread through the empire. To save time I won't go into the engineering aspect of the water clocks but they were first callibrated with a sun dial, marking off 12 lines for the 12 hours where the shadow fell. After that you wouldn't need the sun anymore and you could tell time day or night, rain or shine. They kept time for the 24 hours of the day and 12 months of the year. Since the Roman's loved luxury, and loved to show off their wealth, by the second century if you didn't have your own water clock in your house - you just weren't cool and no one would envy you. Which to a wealthy Roman was everything. If you weren't the envy of others, you were nothing. It was around this time that the hourly division of the day had become commonplace. Now you could tell your guests to arrive at the 15th hour sharp and they should arrive very close to that time because your guest would have his own clock to be punctual. If he didn't know what time it was and was always late to dinner, he would lose all his friends.

  7. jkrisko00
    • 3 years ago
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    I should add that the basis for time-keeping with a sundial is the length of the day. It could not seperate the day into 12 uniform hours all 60 mintues long for every day of the year. It could just seperate the day into twelve equal divisions. Throughout the year the days grow longer and shorter. For instance, at the winter solstice, when the day had only 9 hours of sunlight against a night of 15 hours, the day hour shrank to 44 minutes while in compensation the night hour lengthened to 1 hour, 15 minutes. At the summer solstice the position was exactly reversed; the night hour shrank to its minimum while the day hour reached its maximum. However, that is not terrible time-keeping. For what the Romans needed it for, their clock worked well enough.

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