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what is the difference between parenchyma' collenchyma and sclarenchyma
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Parenchyma - most abundant cell type in plants (e.g. cells making up the fundamental ground tissues; usually unspecialized; characteristics include: living at maturity with a very thin cell wall large vacuole for storage and sequestering of materials large amount of intracellular space spherical relatively regular shape very elastic (can change shape and then return to original shape with little deformation) Functions of parenchyma cells include: photosynthesis storage secretion Collenchyma - found just below the epidermis in petiole (e.g. celery stalks), leaves, and young stems; usually specialized; characteristics include: living at maturity irregularly thickened cell walls (+cellulose) prism shaped plastic (can change shape but do not usually return to the original shape; remain deformed) Functions of collenchyma cells include: support some involvement in transport of nutrients Sclerenchyma - in mature parts of the plant, especially in woody plants and herbaceous perennials; specialized; characteristics include: dead at maturity - protoplast is absent very thick, sclerified cell wall (+lignin) impermeable to water and other nutrients in cells specialized for transport of water and nutrients, the cell wall contains holes called pits. Functions include: support protection transport of water and nutrients Specific examples of sclerenchyma cells: fibers - long and slender sclerids (stone cells) - relatively spherical; the gritty texture of pears is due to the presence of stone cells.
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describe the cell in detail
cell is the structural and functional unit of our body or an organism's body.
The cell is the functional basic unit of life. It was discovered by Robert Hooke and is the functional unit of all known living organisms. It is the smallest unit of life that is classified as a living thing, and is often called the building block of life. Some organisms, such as most bacteria, are unicellular (consist of a single cell). Other organisms, such as humans, are multicellular. Humans have about 100 trillion or 1014 cells; a typical cell size is 10 µm and a typical cell mass is 1 nanogram. The longest human cells are about 135 µm in the anterior horn in the spinal cord while granule cells in the cerebellum, the smallest, can be some 4 µm and the longest cell can reach from the toe to the lower brain stem (Pseudounipolar cells). The largest known cells are unfertilised ostrich egg cells, which weigh 3.3 pounds. In 1835, before the final cell theory was developed, Jan Evangelista Purkyně observed small "granules" while looking at the plant tissue through a microscope. The cell theory, first developed in 1839 by Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells, that all cells come from preexisting cells, that vital functions of an organism occur within cells, and that all cells contain the hereditary information necessary for regulating cell functions and for transmitting information to the next generation of cells.: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_(biology)
what is nucleolus
The nucleolus (also called nucleoli) is a non-membrane bound structure composed of proteins and nucleic acids found within the nucleus. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is transcribed and assembled within the nucleolus. The nucleolus ultrastructure can be visualized through an electron microscope, while the organization and dynamics can be studied through fluorescent protein tagging and fluorescent recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). Malfunction of nucleoli can be the cause for several human diseases. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nucleolus
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_nucleolus Nucleolus is a membrane-bound organelle inside the cell's nucleus which transcribes the two parts of ribosomes (rRNA) . A cell nucleus may contain more than one nucleolus.
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