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Translation is the process by which the information now on the RNA molecule is used to make a new polypeptide chain
a. The mRNA strand binds on to a ribosome at the end with the 'start' condon AUG. A tRNA carrying the amino acid methionine at one end and the anticodon UAC at the other, binds to the 'start' condon on the mRNA within the ribosome. A second tRNA binds to the next condon. Its amino acid links with a peptide bond to the first amino acid. b. The first tRNA is released from the ribosome. The ribosome moves along the mRNA strand one condon at a time. Two tRNAs at a time are temporarily bound within the ribosome and their amino acids linked together. A polypeptide chain forms c. When a 'stop' condon is reached the polypeptide chain is released into the cytoplasm. d. A polypeptide chain is only the primary structure of a protein. Each protein has a particular conformation or shape formed by the twisting or folding of its polypeptide chains Proteins are vital components of a cell. If the DNA sequences are changed by mutation, protein production will change. If no protein or a different is made then a cell's structure or activites may also change. In this way any variation in the genetic material will be expressed by the cell. Variation shown by an organism is the basis on which natural selection can act.