Building a Phylogenetic Tree: There are some groups that have no subset of another group... Help!! Please!!

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Building a Phylogenetic Tree: There are some groups that have no subset of another group... Help!! Please!!

Biology
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Group Derived Traits PBL 4-CH MG P PL CT Wolf + + + - + + Iguana + - - - - - Human + + + - + - Wombat + + + + - - Tiger + + + - + + Ostrich + + - - - - Fish - - - - - - PBL: Paired bony limbs 4-CH: Four-chambered heart MG: Mammary glands P: Pouch PL: Placenta CT: Carnassial teeth
Wolf, Iguana, Human, Wombat, Tiger, Ostrich all have PBL. Human, Wombat, Tiger, Ostrich all have 4-CH. Human, Wombat, Tiger all have MG. and then I am stuck...
The 4 chambered heart in the ostrich is convergent. The others are mammals.

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convergent? What do you mean? So what does that mean? D:
A 4 chambers heart evolved independently in the lineage leading to ostriches and the lineage leading to the other three. Homoplasy is another word for the same process.
how did it evolve independently in the lineage and how did you recognize it?
How did it evolve is a long and complicated answer. How do you recognize it is more straightforward. Look at the character states for MG, P, PL, and CT. All of those agree for Iguana and Ostrich. So that tells you that Iguanas and Ostriches should be closely related. Wolf, human, and tiger all have a placenta, so you know those are closely related. Those 3 share mammary gland with wombat, so those 4 should be a group. Now you have 2 choices. Either the ostrich goes with the wolf, human, and tiger group and the placenta is lost in ostrich. Or the heart is convergent. Based on all the shared characteristics between iguana and ostrich, it's more likely that the ostrich goes with iguana, and thus the 4 chambered heart evolved separately.
I think I'm getting it.. is it possible for you to make the tree? ahh, I hope it's nto too much to ask D;
Give it a try. I know the tree, so me making it for you won't help you in the long run.
can I show it to you? when I finish?
Sure
Ahh, omg. My unit guide says I should read this website: http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/0_0_0/phylogenetics_07, and I did and the Phylogenetic tree looks simple... and I tried the question I have above: |dw:1327367282756:dw|
ahhh, I tried following what the website says and what you said about convergent but aww man.
Wolf is there twice. Make the lefthand wolf a fish. Move the human up by the wolf and tiger.
why should I make the lefthand wolf a fish? when it doesn't have a paired bony limbs? and move the human up by the wolf because it has carnassial teeth? o.o
Yes for the fish. It's the most primitive of those (it has none of the features). Humans go with tigers and wolves because all have placentas. Then tigers and wolves go together because they have carnassials.
ohhh, .. i'll create another tree and see o.o
|dw:1327371458330:dw|
ahhh.
i don't know.. anymore D: One of my friends said the tree won't rise because all of the animals have different traits not the same traits before they branch out..
It's been a long while since I've had to do a phylogenetic tree, but I'll give this a shot. When building the tree you have to look at what the organisms have in common and what is different. 1. Everything but fish has PBL, suggesting that the fish broke off before PBL occurred. |dw:1327395340629:dw| 2. Of the animals left, everything but the Iguana has the 4-chambered heart, so the iguana broke off before the 4-chambered heart. 3. Of the animals left, everything but the ostrich has mammary glands, so the ostrich broke off before the gland. |dw:1327395579464:dw| 4. Of the organisms left, the wolf, tiger, wombat, and human, the next most noteworthy trait is a difference...rather than the commonalities that we noted before. The wombat is the only thing with a pouch. This suggests that the trait developed separate of the main tree, on its own branch. |dw:1327396071405:dw| 5. The human, tiger and wolf all have the placenta, so that trait developed after the wombat branch broke off. 6. The wolf and tiger both have Carnassial teeth, while humans do not. Knowing this, we can complete the chart. |dw:1327396333912:dw| |dw:1327396387254:dw|

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