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You ask a lot! The topic is of interest to me but difficult to cover in a short page. In short, Darwin's ideas caused a storm and there are still some people who cannot understand the meaning of his work or accept that we evolve from a common ancestor - I have no concerns about being cousin to a monkey but others will try violently to change my views or just put me down for accepting scientific proof. Modern science, especially genetics has basically proven his ideas.
Richard Dawkins is perhaps one writer who can give the best insight into the effects of Darwin's work in the areas you mention.
You Tube has some humorous takes on the opposing points of view.