if musical instrument is connected to circuit then the input voltage may vary from positive to negative, here what do we mean by negative voltage?
MIT 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007
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MAJOR MISCONCEPTION : we all know current and voltage are scalar quantities .... but we then again say current has a direction... helll there you go for confusion... so after giving it a lot of thought u may get this.. that current has jut two directions in a conductor and it does not lie on a cartesian plane so we better not call it a direction....
and voltage again the same problem....basically for voltage what positive and negative words have significance is that the current flow in an AC circuit whether it is from the the terminal which we call as LIVE or from NEUTRAL... positive and negative respectively so the terminally they are called positive and negative.... it is not specific for a musical instrument...
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Since voltage is always a relative measurement; one must determine what the reference point is. Typically lines coming from something like a microphone are shielded with a "grounded" sheath to keep interference from being picked up. This is connected to the "ground" on the amplifier via "jacks" or “plugs” into a socket to makes sure the shielding gets the grounding it needs. The amps ground would then typically be the point of reference. Since most all of the transducers on musical instruments are purely AC in their output the current and voltage from them reverses direction as they match the audio input they receive. So part of the time a positive potential is on the ungrounded wire to the amp and then it reverses itself and supplies a negative potential there, relative, of course, to the grounded wire off that same transducer. In about any case I can imagine, the typical meaning of a negative voltage is that it has a potential source of more electrons compared to the point being referenced. One might remember voltage’s characteristic of being a potential best by noting static electricity's ability to gather onto a body relatively unnoticed until it finds a way to discharge itself back into the environment. Before the discharge there was a high potential on the body relative to the place of discharge. After the discharge, the relative potential is nil. Inside the amplifier the op-amps usually have two inputs that work from those relative potetnials, rather than simply the ground.