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This answer requires some terminology: the gamete is the first thing to introduce. A gamete is something that fuses with another gamete (eg egg and sperm) to produce an embryo (or zygote). Mendel's law states that an organism will have two alleles (or copies of a gene now that we know about DNA) but only one goes into each gamete. So any one organism has a copy of the gene from one parent but the other must come from the other parent.
This Law was proved by scientists watching meiosis - only one chromosome from each parent ends up in the gamete, hence the term segregation. Hope this helps
ebaxter is right,in short ,read the last few lines of ebaxter's answer! that is the law!simplified!