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In what regards are you looking for this? Web pages, programming,spreadsheets?
In what sense ??? memory addressing ? or directory? or xpath ?.....
In general if you write any value from the root level or scratch then it is called absolute addressing or else based on you present environment if you give value then it gets added to your environment that type of addressing is called relative addressing....
If someone asks you whats your address ,you say alabama ,if he belongs to U.S then he can understand(Relative addressing as his environment is U.S) ,if he belongs to china he cant understand .At that time you should mention alabama +U.S (this is absolute addressing).
Here U.S acts as root level .
and if your in U.S then your environment is U.S so you can just mention alabama since environment gets added to you value=alabama