What cause the destruction of the american bison between the years 1860 and 1890?
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A big part of the cause was the rush of settlers into the Great Plains alongside the railroads which quickly brought them to the "Wild" West to stake their claim. As they expanded westwards with the aid of the steam engines, bison hunting became big business as hides were shipped out east for tanning factories.
Entire areas were emptied of bison by hunters, many of whom also violated previous boundaries on Native American hunting land, along with those riding along with the railroad companies as they forced their way through what had been the bison's natural habitat.
A less dramatic but probably as significant factor was competition for grassland by the settlers' cattle and other domestic animals. That, and conversion of prairie into farms.