19. Animal cells contain a low concentration of sodium ions inside the cell, while there is a high concentration of sodium ions outside the cell. Sodium ions must constantly be moved from inside the cell to outside. What type of transport process is necessary to accomplish this? Is energy required for this transport?
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This is active transport and yes it requires energy. The fact that the concentrations of ions are different across the cell membrane is the basis for electrical conduction of nerve impulses and muscle contraction amongst other things so it's a pretty important process.
this process is called active transport and yes it needs energy because if moves against concentration gradients ....and the reason for the different concentration levels of sodium ions inside & outside the cell is due to the conduction of nerve impulse ..when the nerve is in a resting state ( polarization) the sodium ions concentration decreases in the outside and increase on the inside...vice versa when the nerve is an active state ( depolarization)