• anonymous
For this assessment, you will write an essay describing the production of protein molecules through transcription and translation. Your essay should include discussions of the following: DNA mRNA RNA polymerase base pairing transcription translation tRNA rRNA ribosomes amino acids protein
  • Stacey Warren - Expert
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  • schrodinger
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  • anonymous
Protein synthesis is the synthesis of polypeptide chains which then produce the specific proteins based on the genetic code in DNA. It occurs in two stages, transcription and translation. Transciption occurs in the nucleus. DNA contains the cistrons/genes which code for specific polypeptides. The part of the strand that forms the cistron is called the transcribing strand. It acts as a template and is transcribed to mRNA. The complementary strand which does not carry the cistron is called the non-transcribing strand. An enzyme RNA polymerase attaches itself to the promoter site next to the cistron on the DNA and initiates transcription. The enzymes moves along the particular DNA section in the 3' to 5' direction. Nucleotides from nucleoplasm with bases complementary to the beses on DNA are added one at a time to elongate the strand. Base pairing occurs. For example, base adenine on DNA pairs with uracil nucleotide and base cytosine will pairs with guanine nucleotide. Translation is the process in which the codons in mRNA are used to assemble amino acids in the correct sequence to produce a polypeptide chain. mRNA binds to the binding site on the smaller ribosomal subunit. tRNA carries amino acid to the ribosome. Cells posses more than 20 types of tRNA, more than enough for the different amino acids. The codon of mRNA forms hydrogen bonds with the anticodon of tRNA. The tRNA detaches itself from mRNA and returns to the cytoplasm to take up more amino acids. Once aligned, peptide bonds are formed between adjacent amino acids, eventually forming a polypeptide chain. rRNA consists of a single polynucleotide strand synthesised in the nucleus. The rRNA form aggregates which proteins to form the large subunit and small subunit. The subunits leave the nucleus via nuclear pore into the cytoplasm. The subunits combine to form a ribosome. is this ok?

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