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The Ku Kux Klan was founded in the reconstruction era. The robes were only adopted later on. They were outlawed it several northern states very quickly but saw a sustained presence in Jim Crow States (southern states mainly). This was mainly the work of the NAACP who fought hard legal battles to create jurisprudence.
Rosa Park was responsible for the first bus boycott in Montgomery. She refused to give up her sit to a white man on the bus when she was supposedly required to by the segregation laws in Alabama. It was a very successful move as the white bus owners were losing money fast from the loss of clients.
Martin Luther King Jr. came from a religious family. His father was a reverend. MLK Jr was well educated. He had a Doctorate in philosophy which he got in 1955. He was himself a baptist minister in Montgomery, Alabama. He was responsible through means of peaceful protest for the desegregation of the southern states de facto Jim Crow Laws after the 1962 and 1964 legislation were passed. He was however unsuccessful in the northern states where he was out of touch with the 'ghetto life'. Malcolm X on the other hand found most of his support to be in the North. He preached violent protest to end the de jure segregation.