A community for students.
Here's the question you clicked on:
 0 viewing
hartnn
 3 years ago
TUTORIAL on Arithmetic Progression (AP or Arithmetic Sequence), Geometric Progression (GP), Harmonic Progression(HP). This was one of my favorite topics in junior college.
P.S.: This is my first tutorial. So don’t be hard on me :P
hartnn
 3 years ago
TUTORIAL on Arithmetic Progression (AP or Arithmetic Sequence), Geometric Progression (GP), Harmonic Progression(HP). This was one of my favorite topics in junior college. P.S.: This is my first tutorial. So don’t be hard on me :P

This Question is Closed

hartnn
 3 years ago
Best ResponseYou've already chosen the best response.33\[\large{\color{Blue}{T}\color{Yellow}{U}\color{Magenta}{T}\color{Pink}{O}\color{MidnightBlue}{R} I\color{Blue}{A}\color{Green}{L}!}\] \[\color{Red}{Arithmetic Progression (AP):}\] A sequence is in arithmetic progression when its next term to previous term ‘difference’ is always constant. As an example, if I say a frog jumps every 2 seconds starting right now which we take as t=0 sec, the next jump will be on t=2 sec. When will the next jump be? Yes, you are correct, it will be at t=4 sec. Now how did u get 4 ? Let me tell you, you added the difference d=2 to previous term (2). So to get next term of AP you always add the common difference to current term, and to get previous term you always subtract the common difference from current term. A more general formula to get the ‘n’ th term of an AP is: \[T_n=a_1+(n1)d\] Where a_1is the first term and d is the common difference of the AP. So the general terms of AP are \[ a_1, a_1+d,a_1+2d,a_1+3d,…..a_1+(n1)d.\] When needed to find the sum of ‘n’ terms of an AP, you use: \[S_n=\frac{n}{2}(2a_1+(n1)d)\] But you have a shortcut formula, when you have the 1st and the last term of AP: \[S_n=\frac{(a_1+a_n)}{2}\] ,where an is the last term. The sum of infinite Arithmetic Sequence is essentially infinite. But, if a=b=0,the sum is 0. The product of ‘n’ terms of a finite AP is \[d^n \frac{\Gamma(a_1/d+n)}{\Gamma(a_1/d)}\] when a1/d is positive integer. Note: Ignore this if you are unfamiliar with Gamma Functions. \[\color{Red}{Geometric Progression (GP):}\] A sequence is in arithmetic progression when its next term to previous term ‘ratio’ is always constant. Classical example of Geometric progression is population growth. If I say population doubles every 15 years, what does it mean? If the population is 7 billion in 2012, the population in 2027 will be 14 billion. So what will be the population in 2042? Yes! you are again correct it will be 28 billion. How did u get 28? You multiplied 14 by common ratio 2 to get 28. So to get next term of GP you always multiply the common ratio to current term, and to get previous term you always divide the current term by common ratio. A more general formula to get the ‘n’ th term of a GP is: \[T_n=a_1r^{n1}\] Where a1 is the first term and r is the common ratio of the GP. So the general terms of GP are \[a_1,a_1r,a_1r^2,…..a_1r^{n1}.\] When needed to find the sum of ‘n’ terms of a GP, you use: \[S_n=a_1\frac{(1r^n)}{(1r)}\] when r<1 \[S_n=a_1\frac{(r^n1)}{(r1)}\] when r>1 The sum of infinite geometric sequence with r>1 , is essentially infinite. The sum of infinite geometric sequence with r<1 , is \[S_ \infty=\frac{a}{(1r)}\]. The product of ‘n’ terms of a finite GP is \[P=(a_1a_{(n+1)})^{\frac{(n+1)}{2}}\] \[\color{Red}{Harmonic Progression (HP):}\] I would call HP as reciprocal of AP, because if we take the reciprocal of the terms in AP, the new terms would be in HP or equivalently, if we take the reciprocal of the terms in HP, the new terms would be in AP. The general terms of HP are : \[a_1,\frac{a_1}{(1+d)},\frac{a_1}{(1+2d)}….\frac{a_1}{(1+(n1)d)} \] There is no accurate simple general formula for sum to ‘n’ terms of the series. ______________________________________________________________________ Now, lets play with only 3 term sequences. If a,b,c are in AP, then b is the arithmetic mean(AM) of a and c and is given by \[b=\frac{(a+c)}{2}\] This you get from the fact that the difference between consecutive terms are equal,so ba=cb or a+c=2b or b=(a+c)/2 If A,B,C are in GP, then B is the geometric mean(GM) of A and C and is given by \[B=\sqrt{AC}\] This you get from the fact that the ratio between consecutive terms are equal,so A/B=B/C,so AC=B^2 So B=sqrt(AC). If X,Y,Z are in HP, then Y is the harmonic mean(HM) between X and Z given by \[Y=\frac{2XZ}{(X+Z)}\] Also, this relation is very useful : The geometric mean of 2 numbers is the geometric mean of arithmetic mean and harmonic mean of those two numbers. Meaning: \[GM^2=AM.HM\] Or here \[B^2=b.Y\](if a=A=X,c=C=Z)

mukushla
 3 years ago
Best ResponseYou've already chosen the best response.0u have great skill in Progressions...:)

hartnn
 3 years ago
Best ResponseYou've already chosen the best response.33thanks :) as i told it was my favorite topic,so i practiced a lot...

hartnn
 3 years ago
Best ResponseYou've already chosen the best response.33my initial intention was to include AGP also and typical examples of it,but this tutorial was already long enough!

experimentX
 3 years ago
Best ResponseYou've already chosen the best response.0you guys have patience

lgbasallote
 3 years ago
Best ResponseYou've already chosen the best response.0what's up with those kinds of latex lol

sauravshakya
 3 years ago
Best ResponseYou've already chosen the best response.0great work........

sauravshakya
 3 years ago
Best ResponseYou've already chosen the best response.0@Abhishekjha PLZ SEE THIS

EulerGroupie
 3 years ago
Best ResponseYou've already chosen the best response.0Man! I have trouble with this site sometimes. I can't seem to message people and I can't read the LaTeX on this posting.

hartnn
 3 years ago
Best ResponseYou've already chosen the best response.33Maybe,because of slow net speed....

EulerGroupie
 3 years ago
Best ResponseYou've already chosen the best response.0I have pretty good gear and connection speed, but I frequently seem to have compatability issues. I turned off pop up blocker, but still no messages out. I love this site, so I will keep investigating. If I get to the point where I can read it, I would be happy to thoroughly check this posting out. Thank you for pointing it out.

hartnn
 3 years ago
Best ResponseYou've already chosen the best response.33ok,thanks for your time :)

mathslover
 3 years ago
Best ResponseYou've already chosen the best response.0Nice turorial hartnn

waterineyes
 3 years ago
Best ResponseYou've already chosen the best response.1Use \; , \: , \quad or \qquad to give spaces between two words..

waterineyes
 3 years ago
Best ResponseYou've already chosen the best response.1Actually, AP is my favorite topic.. Great work @hartnn .. This will help a lot..

hartnn
 3 years ago
Best ResponseYou've already chosen the best response.33thanks @waterineyes i used {space} for spaces,though not here...

waterineyes
 3 years ago
Best ResponseYou've already chosen the best response.1And don't think I am trying to hard on you.. Ha ha ha...

hartnn
 3 years ago
Best ResponseYou've already chosen the best response.33even i don't think that :) thanks for wonderful replies, @waterineyes and @ajprincess

waterineyes
 3 years ago
Best ResponseYou've already chosen the best response.1Oh @hartnn sorry to say, but you are missing \(\color{blue}{n}\) in Sum formula for AP.. The Second sum formula that is related to fist and last terms..

hartnn
 3 years ago
Best ResponseYou've already chosen the best response.33oh yes! thanks for pointing it out. \[S_n=n\frac{(a_1+a_n)}{2} \]

hartnn
 3 years ago
Best ResponseYou've already chosen the best response.33i don't think i can edit that now.....can i?

waterineyes
 3 years ago
Best ResponseYou've already chosen the best response.1Copy the whole text and go to "Ask a Question" box and paste it their.. Ha ha ha ha...

waterineyes
 3 years ago
Best ResponseYou've already chosen the best response.1Oh God my english.. *there..

hartnn
 3 years ago
Best ResponseYou've already chosen the best response.33yeah,i can always do that :P but m gonna ask a new question.....

waterineyes
 3 years ago
Best ResponseYou've already chosen the best response.1Yeah sure why not..

hartnn
 3 years ago
Best ResponseYou've already chosen the best response.33any suggestions for next tutorial? i am thinking about: 1. Definite integration. 2.Partial Fractions. 3.Limits. 4.Solving 3rd degree Equation(1 variable) Which ONE should i give next? or any other topic whose questions asked by many...??

waterineyes
 3 years ago
Best ResponseYou've already chosen the best response.1In my opinion, Go for Limits or Definite Integrals.. Limits being the first preference..

mukushla
 3 years ago
Best ResponseYou've already chosen the best response.0and also 4...including rational root theorem

hartnn
 3 years ago
Best ResponseYou've already chosen the best response.33ok,i'll first write on solving cubic eq as it will be short,then next week on limits as it will be long.

sami21
 3 years ago
Best ResponseYou've already chosen the best response.0Excellent , i must say you are Oracle in AP :)

kimii
 2 years ago
Best ResponseYou've already chosen the best response.0thi is so helpful . i hope i will answer my quiz for monday on school .

kryton1212
 2 years ago
Best ResponseYou've already chosen the best response.0wow, amazing. It seems helpful:)

Princy123
 one year ago
Best ResponseYou've already chosen the best response.0thnx. it is so helpful... @hartnn

Compassionate
 one year ago
Best ResponseYou've already chosen the best response.0I like to post on dead threads.

TheSmartOne
 8 months ago
Best ResponseYou've already chosen the best response.0^ same :P But good job @hartnn !!
Ask your own question
Sign UpFind more explanations on OpenStudy
Your question is ready. Sign up for free to start getting answers.
spraguer
(Moderator)
5
→ View Detailed Profile
is replying to Can someone tell me what button the professor is hitting...
23
 Teamwork 19 Teammate
 Problem Solving 19 Hero
 Engagement 19 Mad Hatter
 You have blocked this person.
 ✔ You're a fan Checking fan status...
Thanks for being so helpful in mathematics. If you are getting quality help, make sure you spread the word about OpenStudy.