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J.J. Thomson discovered electrons in cathode ray experiments. e rutherford discovered the nucleus and provided the basis for the morden atomic structure trhought his alpha particle scattering experiments
+The first person "showed" the atoms where John Dalton, he performed experiments with various chemicals that showed that matter, indeed, seem to consist of elementary particles (atoms). Although he did not know about their structure, he knew that the evidence pointed to something fundamental. +Later in the decade, J.J. Thomson discovered the electron and proposed a model for the structure of the atom. Thomson knew that electrons had a negative charge and thought that matter must have a positive charge. |dw:1346990117627:dw| +Around 19++, Max Planck, a theoretical physicist showed that when you vibrate atoms strong enough, such as when you heat an object under high temperatures, you can measure the energy only in discrete units. He called these energy packets, quanta. Based on quantum mechanics, electrons in atoms can only be orbit in discrete levels, they can jump from one and another orbit, but cannot exist in between. +In 1911, Ernest Rutherford bombarded atoms using alpha rays, figuring that this experiment could investigate the inside of the atom. He used Radium as the source of the alpha particles and shinned them onto the atoms in gold foil. Behind the foil sat a fluorescent screen for which he could observe the alpha particles impact. -The results came out unexpected, some bouncing straight back from the foil, so there must be some charged particles changing the directions of alpha particles. -Rutherford knew that atoms consist of a compact positively charged nucleus, around which circulate negative electrons at a relatively large distance. Not until 1919, Rutherford finally identify the particles of the nucleus as discrete positive charges of matter. Using alpha particles as projectiles, Rutherford knocked hydrogen nuclei out of atoms of some elements. +In 1912 a Danish physicist, Niels Bohr came up with two rules, Rule 1: Electrons can orbit only at certain allowed distances from the nucleus. Rule 2: Atoms radiate energy when an electron jumps from a higher-energy orbit to a lower-energy orbit. Also, an atom absorbs energy when an electron gets boosted from a low-energy orbit to a high-energy orbit. +Later an Austrian physicist, Erwin Schrodinger worked kind of like harmonic theory from waves and vibrations. -Schrodinger work of the atom began to appear very strange. It proved difficult to form an accurate picture of an atom because nothing in our world really compares with it. Even though you require a brief explanation, its quite long too. + = Brief explanation - = Long answer