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For part 1, you have to look at some of the events of the time. England had just finished fighting the French and Indian War. This war was massively expensive, so England was looking for ways to pay for it. They turned to the relatively lowly taxed colonies for income. "Americans" of the time felt like they were getting taxed without a true voice in the parliament in order to protest the tax hike. This is the classic excuse for the revolution. Americans were also extremely angry about the quartering of troops in private homes, which was another stickling point. This, along with events like the Boston Massacre led americans to their breaking points and led to revolution.
For part 2, John locke says that if a government is protecting your inalienable rights, it is your civic duty to rise up and overthrow the unjust government. American colonists felt the british parliament was denying them their basic rights, so they rose in armed revolt and established a new government