prove the same result, not by induction, but by directly manipulating the sum: let A be the sum, and show that xA = A + xn+1 -1.(Use sigma notation in your proof).

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\[\sum_{i=0}^{n} x ^{i} = \frac{ 1-x ^{n+1} }{ 1-x }\]

First off, write (in sigma notation) what xA would be. What do you get?

i don't get it, whats xA

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