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\[\sum_{i=0}^{n} x ^{i} = \frac{ 1-x ^{n+1} }{ 1-x }\]

First off, write (in sigma notation) what xA would be. What do you get?

i don't get it, whats xA

\[A=\sum_{i=0}^n x^i\]xA=?

im so confused

i hate does things

those

so thats gonna be the same as the above one

yeah i get it, but can't you change the index to start from 1? wouldn't it be the same?

so its basically xA=A+xn+1, but what about -1?

Notice that your new sum does not have the \(x^0=1\) term. So you need to subtract off the 1.