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It's how you make whiskey from fermented corn. The yeast that turns sugar into alcohol dies when the alcohol reaches about 10% concentration, which is about the concentration in wine. To make stronger spirits -- more concentrated alcohol -- you set up a still, and take advantage of the fact that alcohol boils at a lower temperature than water. You heat your stuff, and the alcohol boils off faster than the water, so the vapor you collect over the still has a higher concentration of alcohol than the liquid.
If you do this over and over again (maybe in the same complex apparatus), you will be able to increase the concentration of alcohol by quite a lot. (For alcohol and water in particuilar, you can't go all the way to 100% alcohol, for reasons more complicated than you probably want to know right now.)
Distillation uses the fact that pure substances have a characteristic boiling point. So if you have a mixture of A and B, and A's boiling point is 100C and B is 80C, when you start heating the mixture, as the temp reaches 80C, first B will boil off completely. So it will be in the vapor phase, rise from the liquid and can be directed to a condenser. Then after all of B has boiled off, the temp will rise and at 100C, A will go into the gas phase and you can collect pure A.
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Look, you want a real explanation that's not technical, here it is:
When you boil water, you'll notice it condenses as steam, right? If you were boiling salt water you'd find that the stuff that condensed wasn't as salty as the water it came from. However, it would still be salty! This is where fractional distillation comes in. It simply does this process multiple times, where it takes that condensed steam and then turns it back into steam again, leaving behind just a little bit more salt. The more plates you have, the more the steam will evaporate, condense, and then repeat the process, thus giving you a purer and purer water at the end.
Of course you could distill anything, not just salt and water, but anything liquid that's mixed together like ethanol and acetone. The thing you purified get at the end of distillation is going to be the thing with the lowest boiling point.
Conversely, you can sometimes just boil off the stuff you don't want and keep the good stuff behind, like with salt and water if you really just wanted the salt you could just boil it until it was dry, bu of course that's not distillation.
Thanx all of u for ur contributions . now i gt it.
U really let me know the process of distillation in easier way. thanx a lot again :)