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Hi Heather! Before we answer the question let us first examine what scientific knowledge and reasoning is. Scientific knowledge - knowledge accumulated by systematic study and organized by general principles; "mathematics is the basis for much scientific knowledge" Reasoning - the process of forming conclusions, judgments, or inferences from facts or premises. Anytime you are making a well informed decision about something its going to involve knowledge of the subject and your reasoning abilities since you have to think about whatever you are deciding on. For instance say a company wanted to build a bridge in a city. They are going to need reasoning abilities such as: How long will it take to build the bridge? How many workers are required? Will streets have to be blocked and traffic rerouted? They are also going to need scientific knowledge on how to build the bridge such as: What materials are going to be needed? What type of bridge should be built? How much weight should the bridge hold? How can the bridge be build so that the wind does not rock it back and forth too much?
A very simple example is the light bulb question. If the light bulb in your room goes out, scientific reasoning will first attribute it to a short circuit. Then, after setting up the hypothesis, we go and check if changing the fuse solves the problem. if not, the hypothesis is rejected and we change the hypothesis and do another experiment.