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The United States Senate is the upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the lower house being the House of Representatives. The composition and powers of the Senate and the House are established in Article One of the Constitution (which does not use the terms "upper" and "lower"). In the Senate, each state is represented by two members. Membership is therefore based on the equal representation of each state, regardless of population. Senators serve six-year terms that are so staggered that elections are held for a third of the seats (a class) every second year. According to a theory long popular among scholars of United States government, the Senate is regarded as a more deliberative body than the House of Representatives because the Senate is smaller and its members serve longer terms, allowing for a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere that is somewhat more insulated from public opinion than the House. The Senate has several exclusive powers not granted to the House, including consenting to treaties as a precondition to their ratification and consenting to appointments of Cabinet secretaries and federal judges.
They basically make the laws.