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11. The civil rights cases of 1883 were significant because the Supreme Court concluded that (5 points) the black codes were constitutional. segregation was constitutional. states, not individuals, were prohibited from discriminating under the Fourteenth Amendment. Abraham Lincoln's proclamation ending slavery was unconstitutional. the citizenship rights of black Americans could not be denied because of the color of their skin.
Do you have any thoughts for this one? 0.o
well I go with the first one :P
Nevermind I think its the : states, not individuals, were prohibited from discriminating under the Fourteenth Amendment. ........
The Civil Rights Cases, 109 US 3 (1883) Between 1866 and 1875, Congress passed several civil rights acts to implement the 13th and 14th Amendments during Reconstruction. The Civil Rights Act of 1875 was the most controversial because it imposed criminal penalties against businesses that discriminated on the basis of race. Many (white) people opposed to Reconstruction thought the Act infringed on their personal right of free association and "freedom of choice." When federal troops withdrew from the South in 1879, the Reconstruction Period officially came to a close. Southern states immediately began passing "Black Codes," local legislation that was designed to restrict the labor and freedom of African-Americans, and to ensure separation between the races. The Civil Rights Cases consolidated five cases on appeal from Circuit courts around the United States (see list) involving federal and constitutional law, and were brought before the Court during the 1882 Term (they were decided early in the 1883 Term). These cases raised the question of whether the 14th Amendment Equal Protection Clause could be applied to private citizens. In an 8-1 vote, the Supreme Court ruled the Civil Rights Act of 1875 was unconstitutional because neither the 13th nor 14th Amendments empowered Congress to legislate behavior in the private sector. The Court believed these Amendments were only to be extended to the States. By striking down civil rights legislation, the Court gave private citizens and businesses tacit permission to engage in overt acts of discrimination, and laid the groundwork for the "separate but equal" doctrine established in Plessy v. Ferguson, (1896).
If that helps >.<
In these cases the Supreme Court ruled that the 14th Amendment (prohibiting discrimination by state law) did not apply to individuals acting in their private capacity. For example, while a state could not prohibit black children from attending public school, a private school could admit only whites, or only blacks, as it chose. The state could not enact a curfew only for blacks, but a bar-owner was free to refuse to serve blacks after 5 PM, or at all. It was a case of interpreting the text of the 14th Amendment as it was written, and not assuming the people who wrote it meant much more than they said -- that they intended to give Congress the power to criminalize individual acts of discrimination, but just forgot to write it that way. Note that states have always had the power to criminalize discrimination. Generally they have in such things as employment or the buyiing and selling of houses, but when it comes down to subtle things like who you want to serve in your business establishment, or whether you want to create a "members only" organization focussed on one particular group, they have treaded lightly, probably for fear of a vicious public backlash that might leave some legislators hanging from trees. Additionally, if either Congress or state legislatures were to prohibit discrimination in private membership, that would outlaw women's colleges, black colleges and scholarships, separate women-only gyms, force the NBA to adopt affirmative-action hiring of white players, and a whole lot of other stuff that give most people pause.
so which answer do you think it is?
Read what I wrote carefully. It's in there. But you'll have to do a LITTLE mental work.
do you know the answer its in what Carl wrote
yeah its states, not individuals, were prohibited from discriminating under the Fourteenth Amendment.
so I was right....... :P
yeah thats the answer good job:)
I said that point blank ... and listed how I found out....
14:b 19:c 20:b :) good job
14 wasnt b i got it wrong
really? hhmmmm hold on lemme see
no need i allready submited it
okay... do good?
well guess you did..... bye ^_^