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14. Leonardo da Vinci was an excellent example of Renaissance Italy's social ideal because he (1 point) A was a politician, and politicians were considered the pinnacle of human achievement. B came from a wealthy family and greatly improved his family's status in society. C wrote grand romantic poetry and insightful political treatises. D was a painter, sculptor, architect, inventor, and mathematician. 15. __________ was the first Protestant faith. (1 point) A Calvinism B Zoroastrianism C Christian humanism D Lutheranism 16. The __________ movement had a profound effect on education. A Renaissance B humanist C liberal D vernacular 17. The publication of Martin Luther's Ninety-Five Theses (1 point) A was immediately seen as a threat by local businesses. B attacked the abuses in the sale of indulgences, beginning the Protestant Reformation. C was largely ignored until decades after Luther's death. D became the context for Angelicanism. 18. ___________ went to his grave believing he had discovered a westward passage to Asia, when in fact he had actually discovered the Americas. (1 point) A Amerigo Vespucci B John Cabot C Christopher Columbus D Alfonso de Albuquerque 19. The footbinding of Chinese women was (1 point) A a way of punishing wives who were bad cooks. B considered a status symbol in Qing society. C a method used by landowners to keep female slaves from escaping. D a custom imported from Europe by Marco Polo. 20. Originally, African slaves were brought to the Americas to supply labor for the (1 point) A sugarcane plantations. B rubber plantations. C molasses industry. D tobacco fields. 21. The Moluccas were known to Europeans as the (1 point A Gold Coast. B Middle Passage. C Spice Islands. D West Indies. 22. To Portuguese explorers, the southern coast of West Africa became known as the (1 point) A Cape of Good Hope. B land of salt. C Gold Coast. D Burning Land. 23. Who commanded the forces that destroyed the Aztec capital? (1 point) A Francisco Pizarro B Hernán Cortés C Bernal Díaz D Vasco Núñez de Balboa 24. What was the name for the journey of slaves from Africa to America? (1 point A the Voyage of Sorrow B the Bering Crossing C the Africa-America Run D the Middle Passage 25. James I of England believed in the divine right of kings, which is (1 point) A the belief that a king was granted the wisdom of God upon ascending to the throne, and therefore was faultless. B the concept that kings were equal to God, and therefore did not have to live by the laws of the Church. C the theory that kings alone could know the mind of God, and therefore could determine the future through divination. D the idea that kings receive their power from God and are responsible only to God. 26. What is absolutism? (1 point) A the practice by monarchs of undergoing daily absolution to keep states free of the burden of sin B the belief that all citizens within a state must conform to one religion C an offshoot of Islam, in which it is believed that baptism absolves all past and future sins D a system of government in which a ruler holds total power 27. Who led the Ming dynasty's naval voyages of exploration? (1 point) A Hong Wu B Kee Yo Zui C Xiao He D Zheng He 28. Recruited from the local Christian population in the Balkans, the janissaries were (1 point) A a guerrilla army that sought to drive out the Ottoman Turks. B religious zealots who sought to convert Muslims to Mohommadism. C used to teach sports to the Fulton's children. D converted to Islam and trained as foot soldiers or administrators to serve the sultan. 29. Under Shah Abbas, the Safavid dynasty (1 point) A reached the high point of its glory. B rapidly declined until it was too weak to fight off its many enemies. C suffered an invasion by Moroccan peoples, who captured the capital of Isfahan. D witnessed a relaxation of traditional religious beliefs. 30. Shah Jahan had the __________ built in Agra in memory of his wife. (1 point) A Taj Mahal B Mumtaz C Isfahan D Plassey 31. The Constitutional Convention began as (1 point) A a meeting to draft a declaration of independence from British rule. B the result of a vote by the new Congress to adopt admendments that guaranteed certain freedoms. C a meeting of delegates to revise the Articles of Confederation. D a plan to divide up the lands of the thirteen colonies into states. 32. In Jean-Jacques Rousseau's concept of a social contract, (1 point) A an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will. B punishments are not exercises in brutality, and capital punishment is discarded. C the government should not interfere in economic matters. D women should be granted rights nearly equal to those of men. 33. Montesquieu's most lasting contribution to political thought was his A analysis of the governmental system of checks and balances. B identification of the natural laws that governed human society. C theory that the government should interfere with religious matters. D idea that punishments should be brutal to be effective. 34. The ideas of __________ can be found in the American Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution. (1 point) A Thomas Wilson B John Calvin C Miguel de Cervantes D John Locke 35. What was the "Glorious Revolution"? (1 point) A the agricultural revolution that improved food supplies in England. B the battle between the Roundheads and the Cavaliers for control of England. C the establishment of Protestantism as the English state religion. D the invasion of England by William of Orange, which overthrew James II with almost no bloodshed. 36. The French National Assembly swore the Tennis Court Oath, which was (1 point) A a promise to destroy all of the nation's tennis bracelets. B a vow to continue to meet until they had produced a French constitution. C an oath of loyalty to Jean Valjean, an outspoken lawyer that called for doing away with the relics of feudalism. D a promise not to rest until all members of the clergy were tried and executed. 37. The term sans-culottes, meaning "without breeches," implied that the members of this political group were (1 point) A women, because they wore skirts. B very poor and could not afford pants. C pacifists who did not use guns. D ordinary patriots without fine clothes. 38. Napoleon's coup d'état overthrew the ___________ to establish his consulate. (1 point) A Directory B city mayor C British government D Legislative Assembly 39. The most important of the seven legal codes established by Napoleon was (1 point) A the Religious Code. B the Food Code. C the Merchant Code. D the Civil Code. 40. Promotion within Napoleon's new bureaucracy was (1 point) A based on height. B given to those Napoleon favored, but taken away as soon as they fell out of favor. C based on ability only, not rank or birth. D designed to beneift the nobility and keep the middle class from obtaining high-ranking positions.