a man with blood group A marries a woman with blood group O and their daughter has blood group O. Is this information enough to tell you which of the traits-blood group A or O-is dominant? why or why not?
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Answr:Blood group O :
Blood group O :
(or blood group zero in some countries) individuals do not have either A or B antigens on the surface of their RBCs, but their blood serum contains IgM anti-A and anti-B antibodies against the A and B blood group antigens. Therefore, a group O individual can receive blood only from a group O individual, but can donate blood to individuals of any ABO blood group (i.e., A, B, O or AB). If a patient in a hospital situation were to need a blood transfusion in an emergency, and if the time taken to process the recipient's blood would cause a detrimental delay, O Negative blood can be issued. They are known as universal donors.
Blood group AB
Individuals have both A and B antigens on the surface of their RBCs, and their blood plasma does not contain any antibodies against either A or B antigen. Therefore, an individual with type AB blood can receive blood from any group (with AB being preferable), but cannot donate blood to either A or B group. They are known as universal recipients.
Blood group A
Individuals have the A antigen on the surface of their RBCs, and blood serum containing IgM antibodies against the B antigen. Therefore, a group A individual can receive blood only from individuals of groups A or O (with A being preferable), and can donate blood to individuals with type A or AB.
Blood group B
Individuals have the B antigen on the surface of their RBCs, and blood serum containing IgM antibodies against the A antigen. Therefore, a group B individual can receive blood only from individuals of groups B or O (with B being preferable), and can donate blood to individuals with type B or AB.
Type O isn't a dominant blood type.
Let me explain blood type for you, in a simple way.
There are four blood types, yes?
You know what GENOTYPE is, right?
In this case GENOTYPE is a pair letters that determines how a trait appears.
The trait that we're talking about, here, is blood type.
So, your genotype determines what blood type you have.
The different genotypes for blood type are groups of two letters.
Let's talk about each blood type, separately.
There are two different genotypes that a person with Blood Type A could have:
There are two different genotypes that a person with Blood Type B could have:
There is only ONE possible genotype, for someone with Blood Type AB:
There is also only ONE possible genotype, for someone with Blood Type O:
Do you see how the letters A and B are capitalized?
In a genotype,
CAPITALIZED letters are DOMINANT alleles.
And LOWERCASE letters are RECESSIVE alleles.
There's something special about blood type, that you should know:
Blood type is a CODOMINANT trait.
What that means is that if there are two capital letters in the genotype,
then BOTH letters will matter.
if you get an A from your mom,
and a B from your dad,
then your genotype would be (A B).
So, your blood type would be both A and B,
Okay, now take a look at the only letter that isn't capitalized: i
The letter i stands for Blood Type O.
Blood Type O is RECESSIVE.
Remember, we said that there is only ONE possible genotype for someone with Blood Type O:
What that means is that in order to have blood type O,
you would have to get one letter i,
from each of your parents.
There can be NO CAPITAL LETTERS in your genotype.
Now, I wanna go over how we inherit blood type, from our parents.
When our parents make us,
they give us one letter, from each of their blood types.
If your mom's genotype is (A i),
then she could give you the letter A, or the letter i.
If your dad's genotype is (B i),
then he could either give you the letter B, or the letter i.
If you get an A from your mom,
and a B from your dad,
then your blood type would be AB.
Do you get it?
So now, let's take a look at the question:
The DAD'S blood type is A.
The MOM'S blood type is O.
Their CHILD'S blood type is O.
What are the genotypes for Blood Type A, again?
(A A) and (A i)
What is the only genotype for Blood Type O, again?
If the CHILD'S blood type is O,
then her genotype must be (i i).
So, that means that she took one letter i from her mom,
and one letter i from her dad.
That means that her DAD'S genotype had to be (A i).
And we know that her MOM'S genotype had to be (i i).
If you use all this information that I just gave you,
then you can answer the question.
BUT without all of the information that I gave you,
you wouldn't have been able to answer the question.
You wouldn't have been able to know whether Blood Type A is dominant,
or Blood Type O is dominant.