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Let me explain in detail........
Ernest Rutherford had the idea of probing inside the atom using alpha-particles.He bombarded thin foil of gold with high speed alpha-particles.The direction in which an alpha-particle move was detected with the help of a florescent screen coated with ZnS. When alpha-particles hit florescent screen tiny pin point of light can be observed through the microscope.
01.Most of the alpha-particles passed through the foil without deflection and struck ZnS screen at its center.
02.A few of these were deflected at very large angle from their original direction.
03.A very few particles(one in every 1000) were even turned back on their path.
Rutherford interpreted these observations from the above.
01.Passing of most of alpha-particles through the metal foil indicated that atom is extraordinarily hollow with a lot of empty space inside.
02.A few of them were deflected from their original path through large angles, this suggested that the center of the atom must be positively charged particles.
03.A very few of alpha-particles even turned back on their path which indicated that the alpha-particles struck the nucleus head-on and the nucleus is rigid.