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I will fan everyone that can help my understand genetics. And Medal+Fan anyone who explains it the best. I feel horrible asking so much but I'm lost in this Unit. And I don't want my teacher to screw me over.
It is a hard subject due to the fact that genetics deals with both macro level, cell level and molecular level. I can try see if I have a full written text at home about the subject else I might have a online biochemistry book that explain molecular part depending on the level you want it.
Errm, I'm currently in High School. So if there is a level like that... I'd appreciate it a lot. Please and Thank You :D
@Frostbite Do you wanna go through some of the keywords on that list? Like allele, gamete, genotype, heterozygous, etc. @FirstFrostByte I'll come back for you. I will.
Yeah why not. Right now I don't know much but if you can help sure.
Altight... this is a bit over your level then, but try read the general theory. Read whole chapter 5 (page 91-127) in the following book: http://biochem.science.oregonstate.edu/files/bbnew/images/BiochemistryFreeEasy1.pdf This is about the molecular level.
252MB. That will take me a while to download... But no worries. I thank you again. I'll start reading it and post my questions here if I need more of an explanation on something.
Okay. So you know how to make Punnett Squares? Do you know the letters, that we see in Punnett Squares? Those letters are ALLELES. An ALLELE is a possible form, of the same gene. For example....blood type is a TRAIT. And traits are controlled by GENES. In humans, blood type has three different ALLELES -- A, B, and O. These alleles are all different forms of the same gene. And your blood type depends on which of those alleles are active.
Oh and before we go on, I'll have you know that your understand of base pairs is right. A goes with T C goes with G.
Oh. Okay. Thank You. I have a question thou: Which do we inherit from out parents and why? I believe it's genes. But I'm not sure. Could you help me out?
We do inherit genes and alleles from our parents, yes. I'm looking at one of the words, on your list -- GAMETE. A GAMETE is another word for a SEX CELL. MALE gametes are SPERM. FEMALE gametes are EGGS. When a sperm comes together with an egg, we are formed. GAMETES contain the genes and alleles of our parents. That's how we inherit them.
Oh okay. If I may ask I'm a bit confused about: heterozygous homozygous Also correct me if I'm wrong but phenotypes are stuff like characteristics of the organism like eye color right?
Okay. Do you know what GENOTYPE is? Whenever we say "heterozygous" or "homozygous," we are describing a GENOTYPE. If you know how to make a Punnett Square, then you've probably seen a genotype. Take a look at this example Punnett Square: |dw:1358149469338:dw| You see, in this Punnett Square, we have two parents, with two different genotypes. The first parent's genotype is on TOP. It is (A a). The second parent's genotype is on the LEFT. It is (A A) We can see here that the GENOTYPES are made up of two letters. And each of those letters is an ALLELE. ~~~~~~~~~~~~ Let's start with HETEROZYGOUS. HETERO means DIFFERENT. A HETEROZYGOUS genotype has two DIFFERENT letters. Like (A a) The Capital A is totally different from the lowercase a. They are two completely different alleles. ~~~~~~~~~~~ HOMOZYGOUS, on the other hand, is where we're talking about a genotype where the letters are the SAME. HOMO means SAME. This is a HOMOZYGOUS genotype: (A A) This is also a HOMOZYGOUS genotype: (a a) You see how the letters are the same, in each pair? ~~~~~~~ HETERO -- different HOMO -- same
Oh yes, PHENOTYPE can be another word for APPEARANCE. So yes, some examples of phenotype are..."blue eyed," and "green eyed." Or "tall," and "short."
Oh my gosh. That's so simple! Urgh! My teacher made it sound and look so complicated. I thank you so much! Oh about that phenotype yes thank you again for confirming my hypothesis. If I can ask. Do you know anything about the topic: "Mendel's Experiments and Principles." A link would suffice if you know one that would explain it well. Again Thank Yous so much!
Gregor Mendel. Oh yeah his work was substantial. Lots of information. Do you wanna see if you can open this powerpoint? https://skydrive.live.com/?cid=8d0cb9bed6c6e2d3&id=8D0CB9BED6C6E2D3%21105#!/view.aspx?cid=8D0CB9BED6C6E2D3&resid=8D0CB9BED6C6E2D3%21353&app=PowerPoint I used this powerpoint, when I was helping people study for an upcoming genetics test. It's got good information. And if you don't understand anything, you can always come back and ask.
I didn't write this powerpoint myself, of course. But I do think that it'll cover anything you need to know about Mendel's principles.
You're welcome, by the way. It's no problem.
I can see it. Thank you! I'm going to go head and read it. I'll tag you again if I'm confused and need help :) Also I'd really like to give you and Frostbite the medal but sadly I can only give it to one. So I'll give it to you since you provided a lot of detail and answered my questions. Again thank you :)
No problem, I was going to give him one anyway. =)
Haha all is good. Thank you all guys!
Okay I have a few more questions: Codons what are they and what are there functions. RNS and DNA? What is the difference? Okay say there was a question like: A DNA sequence reads -A-C-C-T-G-C-. Which of the following statements is plausible? A)Mutation to -A-C-G-T-G-C- is a neutral mutation. B)Mutation to -A-A-G-T-G-C- is a frameshift mutation. C)Mutation to -A-C-C-T-G-T- is an advantageous mutation. D)Mutation to -A-A-G-T-G-C- is a lethal mutation. First what are the meanings of the mutation they talk about? (eg. frameshift mutation) Also this part of the question "-A-C-C-T-G-C-" i know it's the DNA sequence but is there anything other then that I should know?
Here's a chart that will tell you the differences between DNA and RNA: http://www.diffen.com/difference/DNA_vs_RNA You see, it starts off by telling us that DNA and RNA have two different types of sugars. DNA stands for "deoxyribo-nucleic acid." It contains DEOXYRIBOSE, which is a sugar: http://www.m2c3.com/chemistry/VLI/M2_Topic2/deoxyribose1.gif RNA stands for "ribo-nucleic acid." It contains RIBOSE, which is also a sugar: http://www.m2c3.com/chemistry/VLI/M2_Topic2/ribose1.gif If you look at the two sugars, and compare them, you can see that they both look about the same. But DEOXYRIBOSE has one less oxygen atom than RIBOSE. Look at DEOXYRIBOSE. The prefix "DE" means TO TAKE AWAY. And DEOXYRIBOSE has one LESS oxygen atom. ~~~~~~~~~ Another big difference is how they look. You could look at DNA and RNA, and tell the difference between them, right away. Here's a side-by-side comparison: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/37/Difference_DNA_RNA-EN.svg RNA is on the LEFT. DNA is on the RIGHT. Do you see how RNA looks like it's only half the size of DNA? That's because RNA is only made up of ONE strand. DNA is TWO strands, joined together. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ DNA and RNA also have two different jobs. DNA stores our genetic information. It has the information that our cells need, in order to make proteins. But before DNA can make proteins, it has to be transcripted into RNA. After that, RNA is translated by our ribosomes, in order to make amino acids. And amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. So again, here's the order: DNA >> RNA >> Amino Acids >> Proteins ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Now, we'll talk a little about mutations. In order to understand mutations, we first need to understand how amino acids are made. First, DNA is transcripted into RNA. And this is done using RNA Polymerase. Take a look at this picture, of TRANSCRIPTION: http://0.tqn.com/d/biology/1/0/4/Y/transcription.jpg Look at the TOP portion, of the picture. You can see two BLUE strands there. They're separated. Those BLUE strands are the DNA strands. You can also see a PURPLE strand. That's the RNA strand. You see that big purple blob, right there? That purple blob is the RNA Polymerase. The RNA Polymerase creates RNA, by scanning DNA. The RNA Polymerase scans the DNA strand, from left to right. And as the RNA Polymerase scans the DNA, it assembles the RNA. From DNA to RNA.... A goes to U T goes to A C goes to G G goes to C So, for example, every time that the RNA Polymerase sees an A (adenine), it will bring in a U (uracil). When the RNA Polymerase is finished scanning the DNA, you have a strand of RNA, as you can see on the bottom of the picture. This is how TRANSCRIPTION works. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ After transcription comes TRANSLATION. TRANSLATION is where the ribosomes scan the RNA strand, and bring in AMINO ACIDS. If you remember, amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. RNA strands are made of CODONS (just like DNA). And CODONS are groups of THREE bases. The ribosomes read the codons of the RNA strand. And each codon brings in a certain amino acid. Take a look at this amino acid chart: http://dtc.pima.edu/blc/181/Lessons/L12/12step3/12step3images/genetic_code.gif This chart will tell you which codons make which amino acids. I'll show you how to read the chart. Take a look at this example RNA codon -- (U U G) Now, look at the chart. Look for the FIRST letter, on the LEFT side of the chart. The first letter in (U U G) is....U. Now, look for the SECOND letter, on TOP of the chart. The second letter in (U U G) is....U. Now, look for the THIRD letter, on the RIGHT side of the chart. The third letter in (U U G) is.....G. Now, look at the name of the amino acid, where all three letters intersect. It happens to be (Leu), with stands for Leucine. That means that in Translation, every time the ribosome sees a (U U G) RNA codon, it will bring in (Leu). That's how TRANSLATION works. And remember, TRANSLATION is going from RNA to AMINO ACIDS. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Now, let's go back to your question about mutations. I can't give you the answer to the actual question, because I don't have the necessary information. Here's the DNA strand that it gives us: (A C C T G C) Let's transcribe that into RNA. We would get... (U G G A C G) Now, let's translate that into amino acids. We would get.... (Trp) from the (U G G) and (Thr) from the (A C G) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ A MUTATION is where the letters, and the order of the letters, in a DNA strand, change. It's where the letters are NOT in their normal places. For example, A NORMAL DNA strand might be (A C C T G C). But if a DNA strand actually comes out as (A C G T G C), when you have a MUTATION. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ A NEUTRAL mutation is a mutation that doesn't change the amino acid, that is made, in the end. For example, look at this DNA codon -- (A G G) It's complementary RNA codon would be (U C C). And if you look at the amino acid chart, you can see that (U C C) makes the amino acid (Ser). What if the NORMAL DNA codon (A G G)... mutated in (A G T)? If the DNA codon is (A G T), then the RNA codon would be (U C A). And if you look at the chart, (U C A) would make the amino acid (Ser). You see? Even though there was a mutation, the end amino acid was still the same. Nothing really changed, in the end. And that's why we would call this mutation a NEUTRAL mutation. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ A FRAMESHIFT mutation is where the letters, in the DNA strand, are pushed out of order. Here's an example: (Normal DNA) -- (ATG CCC) (Mutated DNA) -- (AAT GCC C) In the mutated DNA, an extra A was inserted, you see? And because the extra A was inserted, all the other letters were pushed aside, all out of order. They SHIFTED. And that is why we call it a FRAMESHIFT mutation. Remember, codons always come in groups of THREE letters. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ An ADVANTAGEOUS mutation is a mutation that, as a result, gives the organism some sort of benefit. Some people in the world have a genetic resistance to AIDS, because of mutations. We call these kinds of mutations ADVANTAGEOUS, because they are beneficial. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ On the other hand, a LETHAL mutation is a mutation that harms an organism. For example, cancer is caused by lethal genetic mutations, that cause cells to divide uncontrollably. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Unfortunately, I can't tell you how to identify ADVANTAGEOUS or LETHAL mutations. A lot of factors are involved. I'm looking at the DNA strand in your question though, (A C C T G C) and I can tell that it's probably not a NEUTRAL mutation. It doesn't look like a FRAMESHIFT mutation either. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ There's nothing that you should really know about that DNA strand, especially since I think it's just hypothetical. Meaning...it's made up, just for the sake of the question.
1) Can "U" only be found in RNA? 2) Codons I know have something to do with genetic code. But I'm still a little confused about them :(.
for 2) take a look in the book i gave you page 121.
Okay thanks @Frostbite :D
Or you want me to copy it in here? (so you don't need to download?) ;)
I already have the book you gave me saved :) Oh and I found it to be useful. By doing: CRTL + F>Type "Term">Find explanation :D
Yes, we only ever see U (uracil) in RNA.
Ah Okay :) Thank you.
``` abiotic factors:-: non-living parts of the environment (ex: rocks, air, pH, sunlight) acid rain:-: sulfur and nitrogen compounds in air pollution dissolve in the moisture of the atmosphere to form acids, causing rain to have a LOW pH (acidic); acid rain kills trees and destroys historical artifacts active transport:-: is the moving a molecule from LOW concentration to a HIGH concentration (USES ENERGY in the form of ATP) adaptive value:-: any trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce under a given set of environmental conditions addition:-: a base is added air pollution:-: burning fossil fuels amniocentesis:-: removing some of the cells from the amniotic fluid which protects the fetus and analyzing their DNA ancestry:-: cladograms or family tree antibodies:-: are special proteins produced by the white blood cells that can be thought of as your body's army to fight diseases; they have specific shapes that fit over specific antigens; when they fit into the antigen (receptor on the pathogen) it blocks communication preventing the germ from reproducing and making you sick artificial insemination:-: using sperm from a donor as biodiversity increases:-: the stability of an ecosystem increases asexual reproduction:-: identical cells; one parents; little genetic variation; MITOSIS autotrophs:-: (producers) make their own food by photosynthesis biodiversity:-: is a measurement of the degree to which species vary within an ecosystem; the more species present in an ecosystem the higher the biodiversity biosphere:-: all of earth's ecosystems biotic factors:-: are living parts of an ecosystem (ex: plants, animals) cancer:-: occurs when certain genetic mutations in a cell can result in uncontrolled cell division; cancer can be caused either by heredity or environmental factors like radiation, chemicals, or virus carbohydrates (starch):-: made up of glucose (simple sugars); found in grains, vegetables, fruit carbon/oxygen cycle:-: photosynthesis/respiration carnivores:-: can only eat animals carrying capacity:-: is the maximum population (number of organisms of any species) that an ecosystem can support cell membrane:-: separates the contents of the cell from the outside environment; controls the transport of the materials into and out of the cell (selective permeability); cellular communication: recognizes and responds to the chemical signals by using receptor molecules cellular respiration:-: occurs in the mitochondria of ALL ORGANISMS both plants and animals chloroplasts:-: only in plant cells, where the process of photosynthesis occurs circulatory system:-: carries gasses and nutrients throughout the body; parts of the system includes heart, arteries, veins, capillaries; organelles with the same function are cytoplasm, ER or golgi clones:-: identical genetic copies competition:-: is the struggle for resources among organisms competition:-: the fight for limited resources consumers:-: same as heterotrophs control group:-: is the group that is studied under the NORMAL conditions control:-: chemicals produced in the endocrine glands (HORMONES) and chemicals produced by nerve cells are primarily responsible for communication between cells course adjustment knob:-: used to focus on only low power cytoplasm:-: is the liquid media that fills the cell decomposers:-: break organisms down and return nutrients to the soil; they are recyclers in the ecosystem deforestation:-: removing forests for wood or clearing trees for farms deletion:-: a base is left out dependent variable:-: is the thing that changes because of the independent variable (DATA collected) diaphragm:-: controls the amount of light used dichotomous keys:-: are tools to help in the classification of organisms differentiation:-: is the process that transforms developing cells into specialized cels with different structures and functions; tissues are specialized groups of cells digestive system:-: breaks down food into nutrients and puts them in the blood stream; parts of the system includes mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum; organelles with the same function are vacuole and lysosome direct harvesting:-: the destruction or loss of a species by over hunting diseases:-: are caused pathogens (virus, bacterium, and fungus) DNA bases are:-: A, T, G, C; A paired with T, G paired with C DNA fingerprint from gel electrophoresis:-: just like a bar code the more common the bars, the more common heritage or ancestry DNA:-: is a double stranded helix polymer of nucleotides that contains the genetic code of the individual dynamic equilibrium:-: is a steady state-balance- : HOMEOSTASIS ecological succession becoming a forest:-: rock->liches/moss->grasses->shrubs->small trees->hardwood trees ecological succession in a pond:-: pond (plants and organisms die over time)->sediment builds->pond gets shallow->swamp develops->grassy field->forest ecology:-: is the study of how organisms interact with the living and nonliving things endocrine system:-: SLOW control of the functioning of all body systems; parts of the system includes pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads; organelles with the same function are nucleus enzyme reaction rates are affected by:-: shape- "lock and key model" if it is the wrong shape it will not work; temperature- each enzyme works best at a specific temperature; pH- each enzyme works best at a specific pH enzymes:-: special proteins that affect the rate of chemical reactions; enzymes are catalysts used in digestion and synthesis evolution:-: is the process by which organisms have changed over time from simple, single-celled: complex-single-celled: complex, multicellular to complex organisms excretory system:-: removes wastes from the blood and then from the body; parts of the system includes kidneys, bladder, urethra; organelles with the same function are cell membrane or vacuole experimental group:-: is the group that is identical to the control group with the ONE CHANGE or difference (the independent variable) extinction:-: is the disappearance of an entire species caused by a failure to adapt to a changing environment; occurs when the environment changes and the species cannot adapt eyepiece:-: the part that you look through (closest to the eye) usually 10x failure to maintain homeostasis:-: can result in sickness or death fertilization:-: is when a male and female gamete unite fine adjustment knob:-: used to focus on low and high power formula for cellular respiration:-: glucose+oxygen----enzymes---->carbon dioxide+water+ENERGY (ATP) formula for photosynthesis:-: sun's energy+carbon dioxide+water------enzymes------->glucose+water+oxygen gametes each have 23 chromosomes their zygote has:-: 46 gametes:-: are sex cells that unite in fertilization to form a ZYGOTE gel electrophoresis:-: separation of DNA using electrical current by size gene expression:-: an organism's environment can affect the way that some genes are expressed gene splicing:-: is cutting DNA and placing it into another organism genetic engineering:-: is a technology that humans use to alter the genetic instructions in organisms global warming:-: an increase in the earth's temperature caused by an increase in greenhouse gases gonads:-: are the sex glands (ovaries and testis) greenhouse effect:-: is caused by increasing amounts of CO2 in the atmosphere caused by the increasing use of fossil fuels for energy habitat destruction:-: destroying a part of the natural environment herbivores:-: can only eat plants heredity information DNA is organized in the form of:-: genes located in the Nucleus of each cell heredity:-: is the passing of genetic information from one generation to the next through reproduction heterotrophs:-: (consumers) must eat something for food homeostasis:-: is the ability of an organism to maintain a stable internal balanced environment how to calculate total magnification:-: if a microscope has 10x eyepiece, and 10x and 40x objectives; total magnification on low power: 10 x 10 = 100x (it looks 100 times bigger than real life); total magnification on high power: 10 x 40 = 400x (it looks 400 times bigger than real life) how to make a wet mount slide:-: put cells on the center of a slide, put drop of water with dropper onto the cells (do not touch the cells); lower a cover slip slowly at an angle (to reduce the number of air bubbles) how to make an experiment more valid:-: repeat experiment; increase number of specimens or trials; peer review how to stain on a slide without lifting the cover slip:-: put a drop of the stain onto the edge of the cover slip; place a paper towel on the edge of the other slide of the cover slip, the paper towel will pull the water from under the cover slip. and in turn pull the stain onto the cells human activities that lead to the loss of diversity:-: direct harvesting, land use, habitat destruction, deforestation, imported species human female reproductive system:-: vagina, uterus, ovaries, placenta, oviducts/fallopian tubes immunity:-: is our body's ability to fight disease; once you have been exposed to a specific virus white blood cells remember the antigens and produce antibodies that prevent you from getting sick from the same virus for the second time impact of technology and industrialization:-: industrialization, water pollution, toxic wastes, thermal pollution, human overpopulation, air pollution imported species:-: invasive species or exotic species independent variable:-: is one thing that "I change" to test my hypothesis indicators for pH, glucose, starch:-: color or state change indicating the presence of a particular substance industrialization:-: increases pollution of air and water- uses more energy, water, fossil, and nuclear fuels inversion:-: bases are switched karyotype:-: is a visual map of chromosomes; can be used to see if the fetus has any chromosomal problems (like Down's syndrome- 3 copies of chromosome #21) labeling graph:-: title the graph (the affect of _____ on _____); label the x and y axis; determine proper scale for x and y axis; set up a key or legend if necessary land use:-: finding the best way to live in the environment- building around trees instead of cutting them down and planting new ones limiting factors:-: are the living and non living things in the environment that limit the size of populations (ex: food, shelter, sun, space, oxygen, etc.) lipids:-: made up of fatty acid and glycerin; found in animal fats, nuts, oils material cycles:-: carbon/oxygen cycle, water cycle, nitrogen cycle meiosis:-: occurs only in the male and female gonads and solely produces gametes meiotic division:-: sexual reproduction; TWO cell divisions 1->4; parent cell divides twice to produce either 4 sperm cells or (female) 3 polar bodies + 1 egg (ovum); genetic makeup 1/2 of the parent cell 1n- haploid #; function: to produce sex cells with 1/2 of the species chromosome number metabolism:-: the sum of all the chemical reactions that occur within the cells of an organism mitochondria:-: (the POWERHOUSE of the cell where energy is made) the site of cellular respiration in both plant and animal cells mitosis:-: is used for growth, repair, and asexual reproduction mitotic division:-: asexual reproduction; ONE cell division 1->2; parent cell divides equally to produce 2 identical daughter cells; genetic makeup identical to parent 2n- diploid #; function: to produce identical cells used for growth and repair mutation:-: is any alteration of the DNA sequence which changes the normal message carried by the gene natural selection:-: nature selects those individuals who are best fit for the environment negative feedback:-: controls hormone levels to maintain homeostasis nervous system:-: FAST control of the functioning of all body systems; parts of the system includes brain, spinal cord, nerve cells; organelles with the same function are nucleus niche:-: is a species' role in it's environment (it's JOB and what it EATS) nitrogen cycle:-: N2, nitrogen fixing bacteria, plants, animals, waste nonrenewable resources:-: resources that take a long time to replace or form (like coal or oil) nucleic acid:-: made up of nucleotide; found in small amounts in all foods nucleotide:-: is the basic unit of DNA which is made of a phosphate, a sugar, and a base nucleus:-: is the control center of the cell and contains DNA (the program or code of life) objective lens:-: the magnifying part closest to the slide (high power=usually 40x, low power=usually 10x) omnivores:-: can eat plants and animals (all humans!) on x-axis of graph:-: independent variable on y-axis of graph:-: dependent variable order of living things:-: cells->tissues->organs->organ systems->organism organelles:-: are the small parts that make up a cell (each has at least one specific function) organic molecules contain:-: skeleton structures of carbon with hydrogen and oxygen ovaries:-: are the female gonads that produce the egg and important female hormones overproduction:-: more offspring are produced than can survive oviducts/fallopian tubes:-: are the place where fertilization occurs ozone depletion:-: hole in ozone layer caused by use of fluorocarbons; **ozone acts as a sun block for all organisms on the earth!; UV causes skin cancer paper chromatography:-: is a laboratory technique that is used to separate different molecules from one another (separation of compounds in a solution by size and color) parasites:-: live off of another organism (host) and do not kill them usually parts of the microscope:-: eyepiece, objective lens, fine adjustment know, course adjustment knob, stage, stage clips, diaphragm passive transport or diffusion:-: is the movement of molecules from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration (NO ENERGY USED) photosynthesis:-: the process of storing the energy from the sun in the chemical bonds of glucose (sugar); process carried out by chloroplasts placenta:-: is the organ that is attached to the baby via the umbilical chord and provides nutrients, oxygen to the fetus and removes wastes through the process of diffusion; mother and baby's blood does not mix! pollution:-: is a harmful change in the chemical makeup of the air, water, or soil population:-: all the organisms of a species that live in the same area predators:-: kill and eat other organisms called prey protein synthesis:-: DNA is stuck in the nucleus, so it sends a messenger single-stranded mRNA to the ribosome where the ribosome reads the message and directs the tRNA to bring it amino acids, the ribosome then assembles the amino acids together in the correct order TO MAKE A PROTEIN proteins:-: made up of amino acids (20 kinds); found in meat, egg whites, beans recycle:-: can be used to make the product again (like pop bottles) reduce:-: cut down on the amount used (smaller packaging) renewable resources:-: resources that can replenish themselves if not abused (planting of trees) respiratory system:-: exchanges carbon dioxide and oxygen; parts of the system includes lungs, alveoli, diaphragm; organelles with the same function are cell membrane restriction enzyme:-: is an enzyme that cuts DNA in specific places and is an essential tool in gene splicing as well as in Gel-electrophoresis reuse:-: use it for another application (old tires as flower planters) ribosome:-: (very small and is often represented by a dot) located on the ER or in cytoplasm; where proteins are made (protein synthesis) RNA bases are:-: A, U, G, C; no T in RNA RNA:-: is a single stranded polymer that is produced by DNA scavengers:-: eat dead organisms that they did NOT kill themselves selective breeding:-: is a process of picking parents with favorable traits to produce those traits in the offspring sexual reproduction:-: not identical cells; 2 parents; much genetic variation; meiosis and fertilization skin and circulatory system:-: are the body's primary defense against disease-causing pathogens; (immunity) via white blood cells species:-: is a group of closely related organisms that share certain characteristics and can produce offspring capable of reproduction stage clips:-: hold the slide in place stage:-: where the slide is placed substitution:-: one base is put in the place of another surface receptor protein:-: a molecule found on the cell membrane that the immune system recognizes as either part of the body or an outside invader; antigens are the receptor proteins on the membrane of pathogens (germs) testis:-: is the male gonads that produce sperm and male hormones like testosterone thermal pollution:-: heat pollution three types of RNA:-: messenger RNA, transfer RNA, and ribosomal RNA toxic wastes:-: DDT transport:-: involves the movement of materials inside the cell as well as the movement between parts of a multicellular organism two types of cell division:-: mitosis and meiosis uterus:-: is where the baby develops vaccination:-: is composed of a weakened or dead virus that triggers our white blood cells to produce antibodies to fight a specific pathogen vacuoles:-: store waste and water (large in plant cells, small in animal cells) variation:-: differences among organisms in a species (sexually reproducing organisms have more variation than asexually reproducing organisms) water cycle:-: evaporation, condensation, precipitation water pollution:-: from sewage, wastes from homes and factories and animal wastes ways that man has affected biodiversity:-: cutting down trees (for wood); planting all of the same crop in an area (loss of biodiversity); removed vegetation for houses, parking lots, roads, etc.; killed organisms and destroyed the food web (because all organisms are linked to one another in one way or another) when glucose (sugar) levels are above normal:-: the pancreas secretes INSULIN. insulin lowers the glucose level in blood. zygote:-: is a fertilized egg ``` I have all my Biology vocab here :)
@Frostbite @InYourHead So my midterm exam is coming by and I wonder should I know anything else they may ask? So if you have any suggestion please do tell me please :)
I mean I don't exactly know what your teacher will want you to know for your midterm. But it looks to me like you guys are covering....genetics, cell division, and ecology. It's the same kind of stuff that most biology students on openstudy have been working with, over the past 3 weeks. Your vocab list is good. Clear definitions, without too much information. I think you're good to go. If you have any specific questions, feel free to ask.
Okay :) Man I love you so much. Thank's for helping me out.
You're welcome, no problem. Good luck on your midterm.
I truly wish you good luck with the exam.