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Some advantages are:
1. It is relatively easy to learn
2. It is an interpreted language so you can make some quick code and run it without having to compile it first.
3. It has a wide range of libraries for it, like pylab (similar to matlab) only free, etc
4. It forces good programming habits like indentation because it is necessary and not optional.
5. Using lists and other structures is very easy as they have a lot of commands built in for you to use.
6. Code is generally short and thus quick to write because of the commands they give you to use.
7. Memory management is handle for you as well as other things.
8. Python is regularly use by some of the biggest companies like Google for rapid application development. It is not the only language they use but it is used because it is quick to develop with. Other languages like C, Java etc are also used and fused together when they are better choices for a certain task like speed of large computations and web interactivity.
Some other languages do have some of these features as well and there are also some disadvantages to python with doing certain things. In general, most disadvantages can be overcome by using a library that was written in another language that is more suited for the task.
Pretty much all programming languages can be used for any task but each has it's strengths and weaknesses. Any time I want a short program to do something and want to make it quickly with little fuss I use python.
IMO, one of Python's advantages for learning programming is that it has relatively low overhead. A simple program like "Hello World" is neatly coded as one or two lines. Java and other languages would be closer to 10 lines of code.
The thing is what do you want to learn from python? What are your goes for programming?
Personally I find it funny when people say "Oh you can do this in 1 line of code whereas this other programming lang..."
Well, no offense, but if your only goal is to code a few lines, this isn't the right major for you :p.
For example Ruby on Rails can be done with little code, but alot of people who use it daily say that when you get to bigger programs the bugs and the overhead of the code is crazy.
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Python is an easy programming code to learn. It is commonly used for new programmers, and even used by expert programmers.