Why can gases and liquids both transmit heat by convection? Their particles are free to move away from each other. They both have a fixed volume. They both contain charged particles. Their particles both vibrate around fixed positions
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The answer is the first one. The reason being is because of how convection heat-transfer works: Basically temperature is a result of the average kinetic energy of all the atoms comprising the solid/liquid/gas. In solid, these atoms can just vibrate in place, leaving them to only be able to conduct and radiate heat. However, as you probably know, liquids and solids take the shape of their container because the bonds between atoms are loose enough to allow them to freely move around. Due to each individual atom having its own energy, and these atoms being free to move about the liquid/gas, they collide with other atoms in the substance. These collisions result in a transfer of energy. Finally, lower energy atoms "sink" and higher energy atoms "rise" thus creating a "convection current".