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Catabolism is the metabolic process that breaks down large molecules into smaller ones, usually with the help of water. For example, your body break down sucrose, which is table sugar (C12H22O11) into simpler sugar, glucose (C6H12O6):
C12H22O11 + H2O = C6H12O6 + C6H12O6
Anabolism is the opposite, buildup of larger molecules from smaller ones.
C6H12O6 + C6H12O6 = C12H22O11 + H2O
Anabolism is basically constructive metabolism. For example, photosynthesis can be considered anabolism because carbon dioxide and water form glucose in the presence of sunlight.
Catabolism is its opposite, i.e., destructive metabolism. For example, respiration is an example of catabolism because in it, glucose is broken down to release ATP (Adenosine Tri-Phosphate as energy), carbon dioxide, water vapour and heat.
Catabolism is breaking down process or degradation phase. It happens when you are sick or fasting (not eating), and Anabolism is biosynthesis process or reduction phase like making protein from amino acids.