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all i know is that dna has the code for the manufacture of proteins
I can't think of a direct similarity between their structure is not really coming up to my mind, other than they are connected by hydrogen bonds. Nucleic acids are in DNA and their whole structure is in a double-helix manner. However, proteins are amino acids connected together, not necessarily just hydrogen bonds all the time, because they take different forms (primary, secondary, tertiary, quarternary). I am not 100% sure about this though but those are just some things to think about.
While I'm not 100% sure how accurate this is, I'm going to give you the best answer I can as far as I know. Lets start with Codons, Purines and Pyrimidines. A codon is basically the smallest unit of a gene. Think of it this way. Proteins are the Language of Life (a phrase my botany teacher used to teach us the concept). Lets compare it to English for a better explanation: The same way the English language has 26 alphabets, the Language of Life has 4 alphabets (these are the 4 nitrogenous bases which comprise DNA - Adenine, Thymine, Guanine and Cytosine). The same way we group these 26 alphabets into vowels and consonants, the LoL (No pun intended) is grouped into 2: Pyrimidines and Purines. The same way we use a combination of vowels and consonants to make words, the LoL uses a combination of Pyrimidines and Purines to make amino-acids. (The only difference here is that in the LoL, each word is limited to a set of any three components.) The same way we use a combination of words to make meaningful sentences, the LoL arranges these amino-acids to form proteins, which are expressed as some meaningful characteristic. And lastly, when we use a number of sentences to make a paragraph, proteins too combine to form a gene. Now, nucleic acids are comprised of three parts: Nitrogenous Base, Sugar and Phosphate. The nitrogenous base can be any of Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine or Uracil. These are nitrogen based, while proteins are composed of all the structures above. Nucleic acids