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Devise methods to recycle the waste and dispose of it safely.
The best answer in this instance would be "Devise methods to recycle the waste and dispose of it safely" This is because all of the other answers still implies that the the refinery is still likely to dump their waste in the river/waterway/catchment. "Ban the use of river water for drinking and cleaning purpose." - This answer does not solve the initial problem of contamination... and the threat to the environment. This answer is a terrible solution as it still contaminates the river and will create a 'follow on' effect, including the loss of flora and fauna, which in turn will affect reproduction rates and upset the balance of nature (just to name a few). The fact that the statement says "use of river water for drinking and cleaning purpose", to me... implies also that the water from the river may be used for some sort of domestic purpose, and in reality no petroleum factory would use river water to provide drinking water for their employees in such a close proximity to poisonous or toxicity as a result of the distillation process of crude or unrefined oil. (At least in my country Australia, or any 1st world country for that matter). As a matter of fact, the more I reflect on this, in any country around the world there would be legislation in place that would govern the safe practice and use of water for drinking purposes, again such close proximity of a large scale and potentially dangerous industry such as the refinement of oil to produce petroleum. "Plant more trees in the location to keep the environment clean." - This solution also does not solve the problem, as whilst the planting of trees is always favourable in any instance, it still doesn't prevent possible contamination from entering the river, which in turn will result in dire consequences, as stated above. "Formulate appropriate reviews and controls to prevent excess use of river water." - This solution again does not address the fact that possible contamination may or may not return to the river, and thus this piece of information implies that the factory is using the river water for some purpose as a part of their overall production plan. Since the water is being used to this effect, perhaps for cooling or as an additive, it still implies that the excess water is may returned to the river at some point pre, post, or during their production cycle. This answer only implies that they are going to implement or "formulate appropriate reviews and controls to prevent excess use of river water". It does not state that any "reviews or controls" will be set in place to prevent ANY possible excess water being returned to the eco-system. Since the water that is drawn from the river will most probably be in direct contact with surfaces or machinery that is used in the refinery, whether or not they return the excess water to the river will mean that the water may still be contaminated. If I were the WHO (Workplace Health and Safety Officer) at the refinery, I would implement a combination of both; Devise methods to recycle the waste and dispose of it safely. Formulate appropriate reviews and controls to prevent excess use of river water. This means that ANY water that is drawn from the river will NOT return to the river, and also reducing the ecological signature that is produced by the production of petroleum. By the way, I have had absolutely no experience in any of this... I am just using my head I guess. I hope this helps!!!