Why do the knowledge of atomic number enable us to deduce the number of electrons present in an atom?

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Why do the knowledge of atomic number enable us to deduce the number of electrons present in an atom?

Chemistry
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Atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus and also the number of electrons in the electron cloud, but only when the atom has a neutral charge. \(\sf\huge\begin{matrix} 4\\\sf 2\end{matrix} He\) 2 is the atomic number (the number of protons and the number of electrons (when the charge is neutral)) 4 is the mass number (the number of protons+neutrons)
It a neutral atom, the number of protons (i.e. the atomic number) equals the number of electrons.

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