anonymous
  • anonymous
Stath Question..
Mathematics
  • Stacey Warren - Expert brainly.com
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katieb
  • katieb
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anonymous
  • anonymous
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anonymous
  • anonymous
Part a and b are mostly just vocab, in general what does ''discrete'' mean?
DebbieG
  • DebbieG
a. Do you know what is meant by discrete vs. continuous variable? Basically, if it can be "counted" then it is generally discrete. Continuous is something that is "measured" on a continuous scale, and limited only by the accuracy of the instruments. b. What do you think? Have you looked up the definition of each type of sampling? c. Here you are just to discuss some of the shortfalls of mailed questionnaires. Those are probably discussed in this section of your course materials, but you can probably think of some obvious ones. Low response rate and cost are obvious ones.

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anonymous
  • anonymous
@cinar in a way, specifically any whole numbers or ''counting'' numbers and no fractions or decimals continuous means there are no breaks so you could have any type of numbers (whole numbers or decimals) So you do think# of shares only uses whole numbers or can one person hold say.4 of a share?
anonymous
  • anonymous
As I mentioned before, discrete means whole numbers whole continuous means we can have whole numbers or decimals/fractions. So if you are thinking about stocks, they sell individually. A person can't only like 40% of one stock * A person can't own 40% of one stock So since you can't have fractions of stocks, do you think shares are discrete or continuous?
anonymous
  • anonymous
a) is discrete
anonymous
  • anonymous
Yep! Because you can't have fractions of items, good job!
anonymous
  • anonymous
thanks (:
anonymous
  • anonymous
Any guess on b, or you want me to explain it?
anonymous
  • anonymous
let me see
anonymous
  • anonymous
Sure
anonymous
  • anonymous
it seems random, but we have not learned other definition though
anonymous
  • anonymous
Have a guess at each term ;) What do you think simple random sampling is?
anonymous
  • anonymous
What does ''random'' mean in math?
anonymous
  • anonymous
every one has equal chance
anonymous
  • anonymous
Exactly!
anonymous
  • anonymous
Simple random sampling means every single thing has an equal chance of being chosen. Do you think that is what it is if we pick 20 people from 50 states?
anonymous
  • anonymous
"If the survey is conducted by telephoning 20 randomly selected " this implies random sampling right
anonymous
  • anonymous
Every single type of sampling there involves random selection at some point but not random sampling. By picking only 20 people from every state you are already limiting the ''equally likely'' part. You are influencing the outcome by limiting x people from every state. So its not random sampling because every person is not equally likely
anonymous
  • anonymous
I have no idea about this term "stratified"
DebbieG
  • DebbieG
Stratified means that you break up your population according to some criteria and then pick a random sample from each resulting "strata".
anonymous
  • anonymous
Stratifying refers to breaking things into subgroups
DebbieG
  • DebbieG
Like, if I wanted to sample students on a college campus, and I randomly choose 10 from each dorm. That is stratified.
anonymous
  • anonymous
then what is the criteria for this question.
anonymous
  • anonymous
Any thoughts on systematic or convenience sampling?
anonymous
  • anonymous
I know systematic sampling
anonymous
  • anonymous
convenience sampling?
anonymous
  • anonymous
You want to go through each definition an pick what fits best. What type of sampling you have depends on the context of the question, so what do you think systematic sampling is based on the name?
anonymous
  • anonymous
that expling everthing @DebbieG
anonymous
  • anonymous
also enlighten me with what systematic sampling is in your view?
anonymous
  • anonymous
:O
anonymous
  • anonymous
well you are choosing your sample in some order
anonymous
  • anonymous
say choose 10 student in biology and then 10 student in math son son
anonymous
  • anonymous
Right, ''order'' is the key term there systematic usually involves a list
anonymous
  • anonymous
I get you :) But did they make a list here?
anonymous
  • anonymous
"randomly selected stockholders " stockholders is our dorm (:
anonymous
  • anonymous
no that is not in case
anonymous
  • anonymous
Yep! So not random sampling or systematic From the name, what do you think ''convenience sampling'' is?
anonymous
  • anonymous
stratified random sampling is the answer
anonymous
  • anonymous
Why?
anonymous
  • anonymous
let me understand first meaning of convenience sampling
anonymous
  • anonymous
You want to have all the definitions in front of you first, just in case there are some with overlapping criteria
anonymous
  • anonymous
stratified random sampling, because your smaple contains only stockholders
anonymous
  • anonymous
That's not what makes stratified random sampling different from the other definitions though
anonymous
  • anonymous
I believe convenience is not random at all
anonymous
  • anonymous
stratified random sampling would need many shared criteria between the individuals in the population
anonymous
  • anonymous
That's right...it's in the name ''convenience''...they would just pull anyone there. But what about ''cluster''? What does that mean?
anonymous
  • anonymous
? @cinar
anonymous
  • anonymous
sorry..
anonymous
  • anonymous
no idea :(
anonymous
  • anonymous
The general usage of cluster can mean ''group of similar objects growing closely together'' but in math, cluster refers to a group The definition of cluster sampling specifically mentions grouping participants by geography or time That's the one we want stratified cluster sampling are closely related but stratified sampling has more similar features between participants cluster sampling specifically involves time or geography Does it make sense why part b is cluster sampling?
anonymous
  • anonymous
himm
anonymous
  • anonymous
do you not understand, is it the matter?
anonymous
  • anonymous
kinda
anonymous
  • anonymous
What part are you confused at?
anonymous
  • anonymous
then key point is difference between stratified and cluster sampling
anonymous
  • anonymous
but stratified sampling has more similar features between participants? such as?
anonymous
  • anonymous
here, yes
anonymous
  • anonymous
like grouping by age
anonymous
  • anonymous
or grouping by race
anonymous
  • anonymous
I see
anonymous
  • anonymous
Whenever you have a question like this you want to run through the definitions before drawing a conclusion s you identify the ''best'' choice Ready for c?
anonymous
  • anonymous
what is similar features of stockholders ?
anonymous
  • anonymous
you can use age or race or gender but it would be like multi-layers that's what you call ''strata''
anonymous
  • anonymous
sorry I m international student..
anonymous
  • anonymous
you could also probably stratify by income too since its stockholders
anonymous
  • anonymous
ok
anonymous
  • anonymous
ready for c
anonymous
  • anonymous
I'll be back in 15 min sorry..
DebbieG
  • DebbieG
I think the sampling here is hard to characterize. I see it as stratified, with the stratas being each state. That is how the the population is being broken up. I don't think it's cluster, because in cluster sampling, you sample EVERY element in the chosen clusters. Like, if I made the clusters each floor of each dorm on campus, and then I randomly choose 3 floors and sample everyone on those floors. Although the strata of "states" isn't as clearly "stratified" as some other options might be, I do think that stratified is the best answer.
anonymous
  • anonymous
My understanding of ''cluster'' is it has to do with ''natural'' groups. In my stats text, cluster specifically mentions geography & time so that's why I think that is the best choice. When i think of stratified, I think of multiple subgroups. Like they would have to break the stockholders up with male vs female, and by age together
anonymous
  • anonymous
@DebbieG
anonymous
  • anonymous
like here: http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Cluster_sampling.html
anonymous
  • anonymous
The important part is the ''total pop is divided into these groups and a sample of groups is selected'' That's why I think cluster is the best choice, it seems like they pick the states first then pick the people.
DebbieG
  • DebbieG
I agree it isn't the "typical" stratified situation, but isn't the typical cluster sampling either. As your link states: "The main difference between cluster sampling and stratified sampling is that in cluster sampling \( \large \color{red}{\text{the cluster is treated as the sampling unit}}\) so analysis is done on a population of clusters (at least in the first stage)." Everything in the chosen clusters is sampled in cluster sampling. Like you said "'total pop is divided into these groups and \( \large \color{red}{\text{a sample of groups is selected''}}\) That isn't what is happening here, there is a random sample taken within each state. That sounds more like stratified to me. But again, I don't think it's a perfect example of either, stratified or cluster. The book I am currently teaching stats from has these definitions: Stratified sampling: divide the population into groups (caled strata) according to some characteristic that is important to the study, then sample from each group. SAMPLES WITHIN THE STRATA ARE RANDOMLY SELECTED. Cluster sampling: the population is divided into groups called clusters by some means such as geographic area or schools, etc. Then the researcher randomly selects some of these clusters AND USES ALL MEMBERS OF THE SELECTED CLUSTERS as the subjects of the samples.
DebbieG
  • DebbieG
It seems like this is almost a blend of the two.... lol.
anonymous
  • anonymous
I get you; you could argue for both! ;)
anonymous
  • anonymous
I am back
anonymous
  • anonymous
Welcome back!
anonymous
  • anonymous
what I should say the prof. " I will just say this is not a good question (: "
anonymous
  • anonymous
Hang on; let me see if I can get a similar example that is stratified with geography
anonymous
  • anonymous
All the examples I've seen use cluster for geography but I do agree that the definition of ''cluster'' should involve ''all members'' in the cluster like you said @DebbieG
anonymous
  • anonymous
?
DebbieG
  • DebbieG
It is definitely an imperfect question. I've written my share of those, lol. I think you could argue either stratified or cluster, but it doesn't fit either of those perfectly. :)
anonymous
  • anonymous
20 randomly selected stockholders in each of the 50 United States we are not choosing state right, since we have total 50 states, 20 stockholders each states, we have 20*50=1000 stockholders
anonymous
  • anonymous
The 50 states are naturally occurring pre-existing groups, that would be one argument for cluster sampling
anonymous
  • anonymous
if it was stratified, the researcher would define the groups
anonymous
  • anonymous
(random, systematic, convenience, stratified, cluster) since it does not say etc. we must choose one of them right? I found this one on the internet as the answer, but bot sure Probability Sample (Different state populations, still 20 per state)
anonymous
  • anonymous
I would think the ''all members'' part would mean ''all stockholders'' here not all people in each state
anonymous
  • anonymous
ohhh
anonymous
  • anonymous
Yes, I would think you need to choose one of the given choices ''probability sample'' doesn't actually mean anything; not a standard statistics term
anonymous
  • anonymous
how about this argument It is a stratified random sample. A random sample is one where the researcher insures (usually through the use of random numbers applied to a list of the entire population) that each member of that population has an equal probability of being selected. It provides greater precision than just a simple random sample and it saves money.
anonymous
  • anonymous
oh, the must mean probability bs nonprobability sampling All the choices are types of probability sampling except convenience sampling. So you would have to go more specific than that.
anonymous
  • anonymous
what you mean..
anonymous
  • anonymous
Its not a random sample because not all members have an equally likely change of being selected due to the groups. its random selection but not random sampling Once you split it into groups you can do random selection, but you don't have random sampling, if that makes sense. But you haven't said why it is stratified in your argument.
anonymous
  • anonymous
You don't need the extra stuff about saving money because it isn't relevant to why you choose the sampling method you did based on what they gave you
anonymous
  • anonymous
ready for c
anonymous
  • anonymous
Another way to think of c is to think of why someone *would not* answer the survey Can you think of reasons why someone wouldn't answer the survey?
anonymous
  • anonymous
busy at that time
anonymous
  • anonymous
Yep! And why would someone answer the survey?
anonymous
  • anonymous
?
anonymous
  • anonymous
for money (:
anonymous
  • anonymous
for interest
anonymous
  • anonymous
lol, I'm tired now- having been helping you since 2 hours x_x
anonymous
  • anonymous
Yep! So from comparing these two sides, why wouldn't IBM want to use these mailed surveys to get stockholder views?
anonymous
  • anonymous
take your time due is 11th of this month
anonymous
  • anonymous
Part c is asking in the negative sense... what's bad about lBM using these mailed surveys to get stockholder views?
anonymous
  • anonymous
haha yes, you should be lucky that there is someone out there who can assist you- way before the due date lol :P
anonymous
  • anonymous
can we consider being lost of mail, on the phone you can get the answer instantly
anonymous
  • anonymous
Sure, that too
anonymous
  • anonymous
Not easy to get a medal from me, I am litlle bit piky (:
anonymous
  • anonymous
haha, my aim is not to get the medal. My aim is to help you learn so you can do your best in your studies!
anonymous
  • anonymous
really?
anonymous
  • anonymous
Medals don't really matter to me, at least I'm able to help someone and they are able to understand the problem using my method then I'm pleased.
anonymous
  • anonymous
do not be humbel like that
anonymous
  • anonymous
lol, that is me in real no joke!
anonymous
  • anonymous
why don't you donate your medal then (:
anonymous
  • anonymous
ok now you tell me, what do all the negatives contribute to why it is wrong/bad for lBM to use the mailed surveys? Well, I'll think about that later. Donation comes after conclusions Xd
anonymous
  • anonymous
ok so, what do all the negatives contribute to why it is wrong/bad for lBM to use the mailed surveys?
anonymous
  • anonymous
C->D
anonymous
  • anonymous
no D->C lol, now answer my question
anonymous
  • anonymous
maybe doing that on the phone is cheaper, maybe they do not wanna loose time
anonymous
  • anonymous
For a survey? Sure, other methods can be cheaper than via mail
anonymous
  • anonymous
they can randomly call stockholders
anonymous
  • anonymous
But overall why are surveys bad for getting stockholder opinion? What affects the accuracy of the stockholder opinion?
anonymous
  • anonymous
oh I misunderstood the question
anonymous
  • anonymous
In this part, they only ask about mailed surveys- and the things you mentioned before *bias the opinion The key word here is *bias* The company doesn't know if they are missing opinions because, as you said, the mail got lost or only a specific type of person chose to answer the survey. So the survey results aren't useful it they don't reflect all the stockholders in the company
anonymous
  • anonymous
got it..
anonymous
  • anonymous
we can continue later, for other question..
anonymous
  • anonymous
Any other questions, before I go?
anonymous
  • anonymous
not now..
anonymous
  • anonymous
thanks a lot..
anonymous
  • anonymous
Ok sure, not a problem. Have a good one! ++ good luck with ur studies ;p

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