PLEASE HELP!! WILL GIVE MEDAL!! In a test of the effectiveness of garlic for lowering cholesterol, 44 subjects were treated with garlic in a processed tablet form. Cholesterol levels were measured before and after the treatment. The changes in their levels of LDL cholesterol (in mg/dL) have a mean of 3.8 and a standard deviation of 15.4.
(a) What is the best point estimate of the population mean net change in LDL cholesterol after the garlic treatment?
The best point estimate is __ mg/dL.
(b) Construct a 95% confidence interval estimate of the mean net change in LDL cholesterol after the garlic treatment. What does the confidence interval suggest about the effectiveness of garlic in reducing LDL cholesterol?
What is the confidence interval estimate of the population mean µ?
__mg/dL < µ < __ mg/dL (round to two decimal places as needed)
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The use of garlic as an aid for improving health is older than its use as a food. In ancient times, the garlic bulb was considered a common treatment for deafness, dropsy (abnormal accumulation of fluid in the body), intestinal parasites, leprosy, respiratory illnesses, and loss of appetite. Today, garlic is more commonly used as a food or food seasoning.
It is available in its natural bulb form and as a tablet, capsule, dried powder, and aged extract. However, raw garlic, which has a high concentration of a sulfur-containing compound called allicin, is more medicinally powerful than cooked garlic. Research on garlic's cholesterol-lowering effects has been inconsistent, mostly due to poorly designed studies and differences in the garlic preparations used. In the early 1990s, evidence suggested that garlic reduced cholesterol 9 to 12 percent, but in 2000, a review of the evidence found that garlic reduced cholesterol by only 4 to 6 percent. A study that used dried garlic powder over 8 to 12 weeks showed significant reductions in total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides, but the effect didn't last beyond six months of treatment, suggesting that garlic has only a short-term effect on cholesterol. If you choose to include more garlic in your diet, the worst outcome may be strong breath or an upset stomach. But remember that garlic, in whatever form, is just one way to help lower your cholesterol.
Eating garlic - either raw or as a supplement - does not lower cholesterol levels, a US study has found.
There has been a belief that garlic could help, supported by positive lab and animal studies.
But a comparison of raw garlic and two garlic supplements in Archives of Internal Medicine found none of the three had any effect.
British experts said a healthy diet combined with plenty of exercise was the best way to prevent heart disease.
There were no statistically significant effects
Stanford University researchers
Garlic has been used for thousands of years in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases - the first recorded use was in ancient Egypt 3,500 years ago.
Recently allicin, a compound in garlic has been shown to prevent the formation of cholesterol in over 90 animal studies and, in the early 1990s, studies in humans also suggested there could be benefits.
But the studies were poorly designed, and did not provide conclusive proof.
Even so, garlic supplements are often promoted as cholesterol-lowering agents, the researchers carrying out this latest study say.
They monitored 170 people aged 30 to 65 who had moderately high LDL (bad) cholesterol levels for six months.
They were divided into four groups.
One was asked to eat a four-gram clove of garlic each day, the second were given a powdered garlic supplement, the third had aged garlic extract - which has been treated in alcohol for up to two years - while the fourth group had a dummy supplement.
All were advised to avoid foods known to contain garlic and to cut their intake of onions and chives, which are known to contain some of the same chemical compounds found in garlic.
Blood cholesterol levels were assessed each month.
Writing in Archives of Internal Medicine, the researchers led by Dr Christopher Gardner, said the findings had contradicted their expectations that garlic, particularly in its raw form, would be effective in lowering cholesterol.
They said: "There were no statistically significant effects of the three forms of garlic on LDL cholesterol concentrations."
No serious side effects were seen - although half of those in the raw garlic group (28 people) reported body odour and bad breath.
Really? This is a MATH question, not a research question