pooja195
  • pooja195
Describe how changes in the DNA code (mutations) can have an effect on the protein made. @thomaster .._.. specific enough?
Biology
  • Stacey Warren - Expert brainly.com
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katieb
  • katieb
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thomaster
  • thomaster
Do you know how DNA to protein translation works?
pooja195
  • pooja195
Is it translation and transcription:/? or is that for something else?
thomaster
  • thomaster
In transcription the DNA is turned into mRNA Translation is the process where the ribosomes read mRNA and build proteins

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pooja195
  • pooja195
what are you typing O_O
thomaster
  • thomaster
The sequence of mRNA that the ribosomes read is complementary to the DNA DNA consists of the bases A T G and C A is complementary to T and C is complementary to G RNA consists of A U G and C The U (uracil) is a slightly different variant of T So A is complementaty to U and G to C Say you have a sequence: ATATGCAGATGC The complementary mRNA sequence will be UAUACGUCUACG The mRNA is read in codons, they consist of 3 bases So the 4 codons in our sequence are: UAU ACG UCU ACG 1 codon codes for 1 amino acid. Search for codon table and you'll get a list of all the 20 amino acids and which codons code for them. In our example we have 4 codons UAU (codes for tyrosine) ACG (codes for threonine) UCU (codes for serine) ACG (codes for threonine) If you have a mutation in the DNA, the mRNA will be different too. Let's say we have a point mutation, 1 base is switched by another ATATGCAGATGC will be: ATATGCAGATCC See the second last base is turned into a C Now the mRNA is: UAUACGUCUAGG The last codon is now AGG which codes for arginine instead of threonine An entirely different amino acid. That's how 1 mutation can have a big effect on the protein made, because it will become a different protein.
pooja195
  • pooja195
will it always change to c?
thomaster
  • thomaster
no a mutation is just a random change
pooja195
  • pooja195
oh ok :) that makes more sense :)
pooja195
  • pooja195
Ok is there an easier way to remeber Proteinsythsis?
Somy
  • Somy
an easiest way to remember it is to visualize it & ofc understand it
thomaster
  • thomaster
easiest way is to search for video's on youtube.
pooja195
  • pooja195
ok :) next thing is this :P compare and contrast Adult and embryonic stem cells Arent they all the same?
pooja195
  • pooja195
*are they both the same?
thomaster
  • thomaster
No
thomaster
  • thomaster
embryonic stem cells are stem cells that are not differentiated yet, so they can differentiate into any type of cell, that's called pluripotent. Adult stem cells are more specialized and can differentiate in less different cells. This is limited to the cell types of their tissue of origin. So liver cells, or blood cells. For example an hematopoetic stem cell (this is an adult stem cell) can differentiate into any type of blood cell. An embryonic stem cell can differentiat into any cell, including hematopoetic cells.
pooja195
  • pooja195
What do you mean by diffrenciate?
pooja195
  • pooja195
Nevermind i got it thanks thomas and friends :3

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