pooja195
  • pooja195
@nopen
Biology
  • Stacey Warren - Expert brainly.com
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chestercat
  • chestercat
I got my questions answered at brainly.com in under 10 minutes. Go to brainly.com now for free help!
pooja195
  • pooja195
Oh miss @nopen :P
anonymous
  • anonymous
here
pooja195
  • pooja195
Ok where do we start?

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anonymous
  • anonymous
alright so I see A1 saying "I understand how DNA contains the instructions for forming species characteristics in the form of proteins." I have to make a question out of this?
pooja195
  • pooja195
hmm i think it will be hard to make a question outta that :/ can we just keep it as is and then just explain what it means T_T is the like the AGCT thingy?
anonymous
  • anonymous
Ok do you know what translation and transcription mean?
pooja195
  • pooja195
Translation is when Mrna does something :/ not sure....
anonymous
  • anonymous
oh okay we have a long long road ahead of us lol
anonymous
  • anonymous
basically the DNA contains 4 bases can you name them?
pooja195
  • pooja195
Adenine, Thymine , Cytosine , and Guanine
anonymous
  • anonymous
good so the sequence of those bases are what determines the characteristics of the protein so they way how you can form a question for this could be.. What part of the DNA contains the instructions for forming proteins of respected characteristics?
pooja195
  • pooja195
confusing O-o
anonymous
  • anonymous
mmm what part do you find this confusing? lemme see if I can simply it further for you then :)
pooja195
  • pooja195
Wait so the answer to then questions were the bases?
anonymous
  • anonymous
yup :D
pooja195
  • pooja195
Oh LOL nvm then xD
anonymous
  • anonymous
haha I don't why I can copy past on OS but you can do it for me copy the question and the answer for it will be the part where I say "so the sequences of those bases...etc etc
anonymous
  • anonymous
*can't
pooja195
  • pooja195
This? I can distinguish between DNA, genes, and chromosomes.
anonymous
  • anonymous
no no no lol I mean what I posted here on OS just now
anonymous
  • anonymous
Q.) What part of the DNA contains the instruction for forming protein with their respected characteristics? Answer: The Sequences of the four bases are what determines the characteristics of the proteins
anonymous
  • anonymous
that's what I wanted you to do lol ^^
pooja195
  • pooja195
Done :P
pooja195
  • pooja195
" I can distinguish between DNA, genes, and chromosomes." thats next :/
anonymous
  • anonymous
yeah just a sec for this I cannot attach a pic I have to find the most appropriate way to describe it
anonymous
  • anonymous
so basically the DNA is a long strip of nucleotides and the backbone of the nucleotides are the posphate-sugar backbone http://knowgenetics.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/Bio-1-e1354321656394.png
anonymous
  • anonymous
the DNA is wrapped around something called histones, and there are about 8 of them (them meaning the histones) they are further bend to form nucleosomes and that is further bend to form chromosomes
anonymous
  • anonymous
I'm trying to find the most simple looking pic as possible http://www.abcam.com/cms/displayImage.cfm?intImageID=4228
anonymous
  • anonymous
the octamers are just another way of saying 8 histones
pooja195
  • pooja195
O_O i have never learned about the stones
anonymous
  • anonymous
oh...oops
pooja195
  • pooja195
XD this is all soo confusing >_<
anonymous
  • anonymous
oh okay I'm gonna try my best to use a simple analogy imagine you have a string (and consider that string as the DNA) now imagine you are wrapping those DNA 'strings' around 8 marbles (imagine the marbles being histones) you will start seeing these beads-like structure if you bend that further it will become like a tight rope and that rope in the end is all tangled up and packed in a X-like looking suitcase now thats what your chromosome looks like in the end
pooja195
  • pooja195
Makes more sense now :) string = DNA Marbles = stone
anonymous
  • anonymous
histones lol yup xD
pooja195
  • pooja195
:P
anonymous
  • anonymous
1 Attachment
anonymous
  • anonymous
look at that pic it's much more simpler
pooja195
  • pooja195
O_o no its not :/
anonymous
  • anonymous
ignore the left hand side they are just talking about the strings and marble part look from the nucleosomes onwards that's the rope part forming into this huge tangle
pooja195
  • pooja195
hmmm :/
anonymous
  • anonymous
did you get the rope part?
pooja195
  • pooja195
it kinda makes sense
anonymous
  • anonymous
okay I think it's a little too deep which I think is not required of that depth of explanation because there are more stuffs like the linker regions and scaffolding proteins and such just remember in this sequence DNA double helix-----> Nucleosomes fibre------> Solenoid fibre------>coiled solenoid fibre-------> Supercoiling-------> Chromosomes Don't freak out, they are just using fancy for wrapping the DNA like a sandwich XD
anonymous
  • anonymous
just match the names with the picture I attached just see the names on the pic
anonymous
  • anonymous
*fancy word lol
anonymous
  • anonymous
Nucleosome fibers are nothing but the strings and marble part
pooja195
  • pooja195
ok it makes sense now :-)
anonymous
  • anonymous
really? cool Next part I understand how the nucleotides (A,T, G, & C) are the instructions for making the proteins that make our bodies and cells work. do you know how transcription works?
pooja195
  • pooja195
nope
anonymous
  • anonymous
Okay. mmm (I'm thinking how do I start with this xD)
anonymous
  • anonymous
do you know why the DNA is called the double helix?
pooja195
  • pooja195
it has two strands
anonymous
  • anonymous
they care called double helix because of that 'twist' that you see in the DNA
pooja195
  • pooja195
right....
anonymous
  • anonymous
okay so you wanna make protein out of this and you need the information of base sequence you have to unwind the dna right?
pooja195
  • pooja195
yes
anonymous
  • anonymous
there is a certain enzyme to open it up and it's called the helicase
pooja195
  • pooja195
isnt it dna polymerse
anonymous
  • anonymous
Polymerase has a different purpose. (It's mostly used in DNA replication) it's Helicase that unwinds the DNA and after that the two strands are seperated and then they are exposed to be used as a template by the mRNA
anonymous
  • anonymous
there are Free activated RNA nucleotides laying around in the nucleus and THEN the activated RNA nucleotids are attached by Polymerase (like a glue)
anonymous
  • anonymous
ofc the RNA nucleotides are gonna be complementory to the original DNA
pooja195
  • pooja195
hmm :/ rna replaces thymine though with uracil
anonymous
  • anonymous
Oh yes correct I forgot to mention about that so this is mainly the transcription part
anonymous
  • anonymous
next is the transcription part
anonymous
  • anonymous
do you know how a tRNA looks like?
pooja195
  • pooja195
nope
anonymous
  • anonymous
this is really strange.. how come they are asking questions from topics that you guys haven't covered? :/
pooja195
  • pooja195
We prbably have but this was at the beggening of the semster
pooja195
  • pooja195
So i dont remeber it much :/
pooja195
  • pooja195
And we didnt really have any notes to take .-.
anonymous
  • anonymous
Alright, I will write the answers for this then. Proteins are made from a process called 'protein synthesis' which can be divided into two parts Transcription and Translations Transcription is part where mRNA are made using one of the DNA strands as a Template, that mRNA travels through the Nuclear pore to the Ribosomes, from here on Translations starts as the Ribosomes holds the mRNA in place and the tRNA comes in with the 3 Complementory anticodons with their respected amino-acids attached to them the amino acids are attached by peptide bonds and forms a chain of amino acids
pooja195
  • pooja195
Ooo ok :-) this makes more sense :D i actually get it nao :D
anonymous
  • anonymous
what is the deadline for this?
anonymous
  • anonymous
*when
pooja195
  • pooja195
This is a study guide :) i ahve one week to study for finals
anonymous
  • anonymous
@Abhisar help me with gene expressions ;_;
pooja195
  • pooja195
LOL
pooja195
  • pooja195
hmm >.>
anonymous
  • anonymous
I know A level bio so gene expression is limited for me I can article and reply but it's gonna take me some time http://www.garlandscience.com/res/pdf/9780815341291_ch08.pdf
anonymous
  • anonymous
*read
pooja195
  • pooja195
Lets continue tommrow or maybe later? :) And i will read the article too :)
anonymous
  • anonymous
no no no don't post it there LOL post my answer in the previous question
anonymous
  • anonymous
the one with the A T G C
pooja195
  • pooja195
oops XD
anonymous
  • anonymous
yup now it's alright xD
pooja195
  • pooja195
:) ok thanks for the help! :)
anonymous
  • anonymous
no problem, lemme read some stuff and I will come back to this post to answer it.
pooja195
  • pooja195
okie
anonymous
  • anonymous
for A4 To answer this more appropriately, it's basically control of gene expression Cell differentiation is what causes the gene expression to be controlled, it can be controlled in many ways for example there can be structural alteration such as modifications of Nucleosomes which can change the amount of supercoiling, which further affects the frequency of transcriptions of such areas of the chromatins there are other means too like Methylation of DNA or Histone acetylation Methylation is a way of slicing the DNA, and . Histone acetyltransferase enzyme dissociate the DNA from the histone complex, allowing transcription to proceed so and so forth
anonymous
  • anonymous
@pooja195 it'd be really nice if you can post the pics of the topic of A4 from your book as well as epigenetics chapter
pooja195
  • pooja195
I can explain how all cells contain the entire genome of an organism but that only specific genes are switched on or off depending on the type of cell.
pooja195
  • pooja195
^A4

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