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Oh miss @nopen :P
Ok where do we start?
alright so I see A1 saying "I understand how DNA contains the instructions for forming species characteristics in the form of proteins." I have to make a question out of this?
hmm i think it will be hard to make a question outta that :/ can we just keep it as is and then just explain what it means T_T is the like the AGCT thingy?
Ok do you know what translation and transcription mean?
Translation is when Mrna does something :/ not sure....
oh okay we have a long long road ahead of us lol
basically the DNA contains 4 bases can you name them?
Adenine, Thymine , Cytosine , and Guanine
good so the sequence of those bases are what determines the characteristics of the protein so they way how you can form a question for this could be.. What part of the DNA contains the instructions for forming proteins of respected characteristics?
mmm what part do you find this confusing? lemme see if I can simply it further for you then :)
Wait so the answer to then questions were the bases?
Oh LOL nvm then xD
haha I don't why I can copy past on OS but you can do it for me copy the question and the answer for it will be the part where I say "so the sequences of those bases...etc etc
This? I can distinguish between DNA, genes, and chromosomes.
no no no lol I mean what I posted here on OS just now
Q.) What part of the DNA contains the instruction for forming protein with their respected characteristics? Answer: The Sequences of the four bases are what determines the characteristics of the proteins
that's what I wanted you to do lol ^^
" I can distinguish between DNA, genes, and chromosomes." thats next :/
yeah just a sec for this I cannot attach a pic I have to find the most appropriate way to describe it
so basically the DNA is a long strip of nucleotides and the backbone of the nucleotides are the posphate-sugar backbone http://knowgenetics.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/Bio-1-e1354321656394.png
the DNA is wrapped around something called histones, and there are about 8 of them (them meaning the histones) they are further bend to form nucleosomes and that is further bend to form chromosomes
I'm trying to find the most simple looking pic as possible http://www.abcam.com/cms/displayImage.cfm?intImageID=4228
the octamers are just another way of saying 8 histones
O_O i have never learned about the stones
XD this is all soo confusing >_<
oh okay I'm gonna try my best to use a simple analogy imagine you have a string (and consider that string as the DNA) now imagine you are wrapping those DNA 'strings' around 8 marbles (imagine the marbles being histones) you will start seeing these beads-like structure if you bend that further it will become like a tight rope and that rope in the end is all tangled up and packed in a X-like looking suitcase now thats what your chromosome looks like in the end
Makes more sense now :) string = DNA Marbles = stone
histones lol yup xD
look at that pic it's much more simpler
O_o no its not :/
ignore the left hand side they are just talking about the strings and marble part look from the nucleosomes onwards that's the rope part forming into this huge tangle
did you get the rope part?
it kinda makes sense
okay I think it's a little too deep which I think is not required of that depth of explanation because there are more stuffs like the linker regions and scaffolding proteins and such just remember in this sequence DNA double helix-----> Nucleosomes fibre------> Solenoid fibre------>coiled solenoid fibre-------> Supercoiling-------> Chromosomes Don't freak out, they are just using fancy for wrapping the DNA like a sandwich XD
just match the names with the picture I attached just see the names on the pic
*fancy word lol
Nucleosome fibers are nothing but the strings and marble part
ok it makes sense now :-)
really? cool Next part I understand how the nucleotides (A,T, G, & C) are the instructions for making the proteins that make our bodies and cells work. do you know how transcription works?
Okay. mmm (I'm thinking how do I start with this xD)
do you know why the DNA is called the double helix?
it has two strands
they care called double helix because of that 'twist' that you see in the DNA
okay so you wanna make protein out of this and you need the information of base sequence you have to unwind the dna right?
there is a certain enzyme to open it up and it's called the helicase
isnt it dna polymerse
Polymerase has a different purpose. (It's mostly used in DNA replication) it's Helicase that unwinds the DNA and after that the two strands are seperated and then they are exposed to be used as a template by the mRNA
there are Free activated RNA nucleotides laying around in the nucleus and THEN the activated RNA nucleotids are attached by Polymerase (like a glue)
ofc the RNA nucleotides are gonna be complementory to the original DNA
hmm :/ rna replaces thymine though with uracil
Oh yes correct I forgot to mention about that so this is mainly the transcription part
next is the transcription part
do you know how a tRNA looks like?
this is really strange.. how come they are asking questions from topics that you guys haven't covered? :/
We prbably have but this was at the beggening of the semster
So i dont remeber it much :/
And we didnt really have any notes to take .-.
Alright, I will write the answers for this then. Proteins are made from a process called 'protein synthesis' which can be divided into two parts Transcription and Translations Transcription is part where mRNA are made using one of the DNA strands as a Template, that mRNA travels through the Nuclear pore to the Ribosomes, from here on Translations starts as the Ribosomes holds the mRNA in place and the tRNA comes in with the 3 Complementory anticodons with their respected amino-acids attached to them the amino acids are attached by peptide bonds and forms a chain of amino acids
Ooo ok :-) this makes more sense :D i actually get it nao :D
what is the deadline for this?
This is a study guide :) i ahve one week to study for finals
@Abhisar help me with gene expressions ;_;
I know A level bio so gene expression is limited for me I can article and reply but it's gonna take me some time http://www.garlandscience.com/res/pdf/9780815341291_ch08.pdf
Lets continue tommrow or maybe later? :) And i will read the article too :)
no no no don't post it there LOL post my answer in the previous question
the one with the A T G C
yup now it's alright xD
:) ok thanks for the help! :)
no problem, lemme read some stuff and I will come back to this post to answer it.
for A4 To answer this more appropriately, it's basically control of gene expression Cell differentiation is what causes the gene expression to be controlled, it can be controlled in many ways for example there can be structural alteration such as modifications of Nucleosomes which can change the amount of supercoiling, which further affects the frequency of transcriptions of such areas of the chromatins there are other means too like Methylation of DNA or Histone acetylation Methylation is a way of slicing the DNA, and . Histone acetyltransferase enzyme dissociate the DNA from the histone complex, allowing transcription to proceed so and so forth
@pooja195 it'd be really nice if you can post the pics of the topic of A4 from your book as well as epigenetics chapter
I can explain how all cells contain the entire genome of an organism but that only specific genes are switched on or off depending on the type of cell.