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pooja195

  • one year ago

@nopen

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  1. pooja195
    • one year ago
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    Oh miss @nopen :P

  2. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    here

  3. pooja195
    • one year ago
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    Ok where do we start?

  4. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    alright so I see A1 saying "I understand how DNA contains the instructions for forming species characteristics in the form of proteins." I have to make a question out of this?

  5. pooja195
    • one year ago
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    hmm i think it will be hard to make a question outta that :/ can we just keep it as is and then just explain what it means T_T is the like the AGCT thingy?

  6. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    Ok do you know what translation and transcription mean?

  7. pooja195
    • one year ago
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    Translation is when Mrna does something :/ not sure....

  8. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    oh okay we have a long long road ahead of us lol

  9. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    basically the DNA contains 4 bases can you name them?

  10. pooja195
    • one year ago
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    Adenine, Thymine , Cytosine , and Guanine

  11. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    good so the sequence of those bases are what determines the characteristics of the protein so they way how you can form a question for this could be.. What part of the DNA contains the instructions for forming proteins of respected characteristics?

  12. pooja195
    • one year ago
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    confusing O-o

  13. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    mmm what part do you find this confusing? lemme see if I can simply it further for you then :)

  14. pooja195
    • one year ago
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    Wait so the answer to then questions were the bases?

  15. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    yup :D

  16. pooja195
    • one year ago
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    Oh LOL nvm then xD

  17. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    haha I don't why I can copy past on OS but you can do it for me copy the question and the answer for it will be the part where I say "so the sequences of those bases...etc etc

  18. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    *can't

  19. pooja195
    • one year ago
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    This? I can distinguish between DNA, genes, and chromosomes.

  20. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    no no no lol I mean what I posted here on OS just now

  21. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    Q.) What part of the DNA contains the instruction for forming protein with their respected characteristics? Answer: The Sequences of the four bases are what determines the characteristics of the proteins

  22. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    that's what I wanted you to do lol ^^

  23. pooja195
    • one year ago
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    Done :P

  24. pooja195
    • one year ago
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    " I can distinguish between DNA, genes, and chromosomes." thats next :/

  25. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    yeah just a sec for this I cannot attach a pic I have to find the most appropriate way to describe it

  26. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    so basically the DNA is a long strip of nucleotides and the backbone of the nucleotides are the posphate-sugar backbone http://knowgenetics.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/Bio-1-e1354321656394.png

  27. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    the DNA is wrapped around something called histones, and there are about 8 of them (them meaning the histones) they are further bend to form nucleosomes and that is further bend to form chromosomes

  28. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    I'm trying to find the most simple looking pic as possible http://www.abcam.com/cms/displayImage.cfm?intImageID=4228

  29. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    the octamers are just another way of saying 8 histones

  30. pooja195
    • one year ago
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    O_O i have never learned about the stones

  31. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    oh...oops

  32. pooja195
    • one year ago
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    XD this is all soo confusing >_<

  33. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    oh okay I'm gonna try my best to use a simple analogy imagine you have a string (and consider that string as the DNA) now imagine you are wrapping those DNA 'strings' around 8 marbles (imagine the marbles being histones) you will start seeing these beads-like structure if you bend that further it will become like a tight rope and that rope in the end is all tangled up and packed in a X-like looking suitcase now thats what your chromosome looks like in the end

  34. pooja195
    • one year ago
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    Makes more sense now :) string = DNA Marbles = stone

  35. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    histones lol yup xD

  36. pooja195
    • one year ago
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    :P

  37. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    1 Attachment
  38. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    look at that pic it's much more simpler

  39. pooja195
    • one year ago
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    O_o no its not :/

  40. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    ignore the left hand side they are just talking about the strings and marble part look from the nucleosomes onwards that's the rope part forming into this huge tangle

  41. pooja195
    • one year ago
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    hmmm :/

  42. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    did you get the rope part?

  43. pooja195
    • one year ago
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    it kinda makes sense

  44. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    okay I think it's a little too deep which I think is not required of that depth of explanation because there are more stuffs like the linker regions and scaffolding proteins and such just remember in this sequence DNA double helix-----> Nucleosomes fibre------> Solenoid fibre------>coiled solenoid fibre-------> Supercoiling-------> Chromosomes Don't freak out, they are just using fancy for wrapping the DNA like a sandwich XD

  45. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    just match the names with the picture I attached just see the names on the pic

  46. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    *fancy word lol

  47. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    Nucleosome fibers are nothing but the strings and marble part

  48. pooja195
    • one year ago
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    ok it makes sense now :-)

  49. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    really? cool Next part I understand how the nucleotides (A,T, G, & C) are the instructions for making the proteins that make our bodies and cells work. do you know how transcription works?

  50. pooja195
    • one year ago
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    nope

  51. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    Okay. mmm (I'm thinking how do I start with this xD)

  52. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    do you know why the DNA is called the double helix?

  53. pooja195
    • one year ago
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    it has two strands

  54. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    they care called double helix because of that 'twist' that you see in the DNA

  55. pooja195
    • one year ago
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    right....

  56. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    okay so you wanna make protein out of this and you need the information of base sequence you have to unwind the dna right?

  57. pooja195
    • one year ago
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    yes

  58. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    there is a certain enzyme to open it up and it's called the helicase

  59. pooja195
    • one year ago
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    isnt it dna polymerse

  60. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    Polymerase has a different purpose. (It's mostly used in DNA replication) it's Helicase that unwinds the DNA and after that the two strands are seperated and then they are exposed to be used as a template by the mRNA

  61. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    there are Free activated RNA nucleotides laying around in the nucleus and THEN the activated RNA nucleotids are attached by Polymerase (like a glue)

  62. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    ofc the RNA nucleotides are gonna be complementory to the original DNA

  63. pooja195
    • one year ago
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    hmm :/ rna replaces thymine though with uracil

  64. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    Oh yes correct I forgot to mention about that so this is mainly the transcription part

  65. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    next is the transcription part

  66. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    do you know how a tRNA looks like?

  67. pooja195
    • one year ago
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    nope

  68. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    this is really strange.. how come they are asking questions from topics that you guys haven't covered? :/

  69. pooja195
    • one year ago
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    We prbably have but this was at the beggening of the semster

  70. pooja195
    • one year ago
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    So i dont remeber it much :/

  71. pooja195
    • one year ago
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    And we didnt really have any notes to take .-.

  72. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    Alright, I will write the answers for this then. Proteins are made from a process called 'protein synthesis' which can be divided into two parts Transcription and Translations Transcription is part where mRNA are made using one of the DNA strands as a Template, that mRNA travels through the Nuclear pore to the Ribosomes, from here on Translations starts as the Ribosomes holds the mRNA in place and the tRNA comes in with the 3 Complementory anticodons with their respected amino-acids attached to them the amino acids are attached by peptide bonds and forms a chain of amino acids

  73. pooja195
    • one year ago
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    Ooo ok :-) this makes more sense :D i actually get it nao :D

  74. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    what is the deadline for this?

  75. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    *when

  76. pooja195
    • one year ago
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    This is a study guide :) i ahve one week to study for finals

  77. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    @Abhisar help me with gene expressions ;_;

  78. pooja195
    • one year ago
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    LOL

  79. pooja195
    • one year ago
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    hmm >.>

  80. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    I know A level bio so gene expression is limited for me I can article and reply but it's gonna take me some time http://www.garlandscience.com/res/pdf/9780815341291_ch08.pdf

  81. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    *read

  82. pooja195
    • one year ago
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    Lets continue tommrow or maybe later? :) And i will read the article too :)

  83. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    no no no don't post it there LOL post my answer in the previous question

  84. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    the one with the A T G C

  85. pooja195
    • one year ago
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    oops XD

  86. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    yup now it's alright xD

  87. pooja195
    • one year ago
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    :) ok thanks for the help! :)

  88. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    no problem, lemme read some stuff and I will come back to this post to answer it.

  89. pooja195
    • one year ago
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    okie

  90. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    for A4 To answer this more appropriately, it's basically control of gene expression Cell differentiation is what causes the gene expression to be controlled, it can be controlled in many ways for example there can be structural alteration such as modifications of Nucleosomes which can change the amount of supercoiling, which further affects the frequency of transcriptions of such areas of the chromatins there are other means too like Methylation of DNA or Histone acetylation Methylation is a way of slicing the DNA, and . Histone acetyltransferase enzyme dissociate the DNA from the histone complex, allowing transcription to proceed so and so forth

  91. anonymous
    • one year ago
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    @pooja195 it'd be really nice if you can post the pics of the topic of A4 from your book as well as epigenetics chapter

  92. pooja195
    • one year ago
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    I can explain how all cells contain the entire genome of an organism but that only specific genes are switched on or off depending on the type of cell.

  93. pooja195
    • one year ago
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    ^A4

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