Why were Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri considered border states during the Civil War?
They were free states that joined the Confederacy.
They were free states next to slave states.
They were slave states that had boundaries on the ocean.
They were slave states that stayed in the Union.
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As the first person stated, the border states were the slave states that remained in the Union during the Civil War either willingly or through government policy. These were Delaware, Maryland, West Virginia, Kentucky, and Missouri. Due to DC's location Maryland was placed under marshall law which prevented it from being able to secede. Kentucky and Missouri both attempted to secede in the fall of 1861 (they were the only states in the third wave of secession) but remained in the Union through the acts of loyalist governments. However, the Confederacy did recognize them as Confederate states and they had a secessionist government as well as a loyalist one which saw both states sending troops to both sides of the war and a lot in the way of brutalities within the states between loyalist and secessionist. West Virginia was formed from the western counties of Virginia which seceded from the state in June of 1861 following the states secession from the Union in April of that year. They thus became a Union territory until 1863 when they became a state, making them the fifth and final state to secede. Delaware was the only border state of the original four not to show signs of secession.