anonymous
  • anonymous
In the Thrall model, the reaction rate (with respect to time) is proportional to the amount x of the new substance at time t , and the reaction rate is also proportional to a - x where a is the original amount of the first substance. a. Why does this mean that dx/dt = K x (a - x) for some positive constant K ? b. Differentiate with respect to x your expression for dx/dt.
Mathematics
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SOLVED
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chestercat
  • chestercat
I got my questions answered at brainly.com in under 10 minutes. Go to brainly.com now for free help!
anonymous
  • anonymous
I think I can probably handle b, but what do you think these variables mean? given a catalytic reaction. What variables would represent "first substance"? "the new substance"? K ? etc..
anonymous
  • anonymous
Here's a bit more of that question ... if it helps at all. "R. M. Thrall and his University of Michigan colleagues (Report No. 40241-R-7, University of Michigan, 1967) gave the following crisp description of autocatalytic reaction of one substance into a new substance: "An autocatalytic reaction progresses in such a way that the first substance catalyzes its own formation."
hartnn
  • hartnn
we won't need a variable to represent 'first substance', the reaction rate depends on the amount of 1st substance, which is already represented by 'a'. same goes for new substance, amount of new substance is represented by 'x' K is just a constant of proportionality! such constants come on all variation problems... ex: if x is proportional to y, x= ky, k= constant of proportionality.

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Michele_Laino
  • Michele_Laino
I think that the differential equation: dx/dt = K x (a - x) is right!
anonymous
  • anonymous
Is there any reason why I should assume here that a=x when t=0 ?
Michele_Laino
  • Michele_Laino
a is the initial concentration
hartnn
  • hartnn
Direct variation: If \(x\) is \(\text{directly proportional to} ~ y,\) then we say x/y is a constant. this constant is the constant of proportionality = k (say) so x/y = k, or x =ky in your problem, reaction rate(dx/dt) is proportional to x and (a-x) hence, dx/dt = K x(a-x)
Michele_Laino
  • Michele_Laino
that is a second order process, which involves two substances
hartnn
  • hartnn
a is the amount of 1st substance x is the amount of new substance at t=0, the reaction didn't happen yet, so at t = 0, x = 0
anonymous
  • anonymous
awesome.. that's the piece had me confused..
anonymous
  • anonymous
the equation makes sense now.
hartnn
  • hartnn
had some doubt about part b. what you found in part a is dx/dt already! because is the reaction 'rate' Then how could we find dx/dt by differentiating the expression w.r.t x.... won't that give you 2nd derivative? d^2x/ dt^2
anonymous
  • anonymous
well that was another thing I was wondering... if a 2nd differential was going to come into play here.
hartnn
  • hartnn
oh, they are asking to differentiate the expression for dx/dt ! ok, got it :P
hartnn
  • hartnn
yes, the answer for part b will indeed be d^2x/dt^2
hartnn
  • hartnn
the wording were confusing! "for dx/dt" >>> i read it as 'to get dx/dt'
anonymous
  • anonymous
oh right on.. I see .. differentiate the dx/dt .. all good.
anonymous
  • anonymous
well if it confuses you, it must be bad ... lol.
anonymous
  • anonymous
alright.. thanks again you guys.. I got this.. :)
hartnn
  • hartnn
welcome ^_^
Preetha
  • Preetha
Hey Hugh, give one of the Qualified Helpers a rating so they can get their share of OwlBucks!
anonymous
  • anonymous
right on, sorry.. I usually always do that * eventually :)
Preetha
  • Preetha
Thanks.
hartnn
  • hartnn
Thanks hugh! much appreciated :)

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