Predict the answer to each question according to trends in the periodic table. Justify each answer based on the locations of the elements on the periodic table and/or the shell model.
a. Which has a greater atomic radius, Al or Cl?
b. Which has a greater ionic radius, Na or S?
c. Which has the greatest first ionization energy, Ca or Se?
d. Which has the greatest electronegativity, B or In?
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Ca or Se, would be Se because as we move across a period we are adding protons but aren't increasing the number of shells. What's happening is as we do this, the nuclear charge increases and the electrons are held more tightly. So if the electrons are held more tightly by the nucleus it's going to take a higher ionization energy to do this.
Selenium 95724 jk/mil
Greater ionic radius Na or S
I think Sulphur is greater.
If you notice for the sodium ion we have removed one electron. So in its ionic form we now have an ion with a +1 charge. This means that there's an increase in positive charge and those electrons are now held more tightly than before.
For sulphur its ionic form is S^-2. The presence of these two extra electrons/ i.e repulsions between them result in a slightly larger radius** there's probably a better way to explain that...
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Boron has a greater electronegativity 2.01 vs indium 1.74
Let's try to explain why. Notice that as you go down a group the general trend is that the number of shells increases meaning that the atomic radius increases. What happens is that we have something called shielding whereby the outer electrons are shielded form the pull of the nucleus and our Effective nuclear charge goes down. The way I think about is that estronegativity in turn goes down. Indium is further down so it will experience more of the effects outlined previously than boron.
For the last one look at where aluminum and chlorine are.
They are both In the same period.
Now going back to what was said before we see that Al 13 and Cl 17 has 4 fewer protons than chlorine. Now as we go from left to right across a period, generally speaking we are adding a proton and an electron. However the number of shells doesn't increase while the number of protons does. We can say that as we go from left to right the nuclear charge increases and hence the electrons are held more tightly ie smaller atomic radius. Because chlorine is 17 while aluminum is 13, chlorine has a higher nuclear charge so electrons held more tightly and hence chlorine has a smaller atomic radius.
Atomic radius chlorine 79pm
Atomic radius aluminum 139pm
so you can say that radius increases as you go down the table and decreases as you move from left to right and electronegativity increases from left to right in the table and decreases from top to bottom
Exactly! If you read more about Zeff nuclear charge it can basically explain all the periodic trends, that's why it's so important.