Which of the following answer choices best compares the pax Romana with the final period of the Roman Republic?
A. The final period of the Roman Republic was marked by factional struggles and civil wars, while the pax Romana was characterized by peace and the flourishing of Roman culture and public works.
B. The return of most political power to the Senate that occurred near the end of the Roman Republic continued into the pax Romana and was one of that time's defining features.
C. Like the pax Romana, the final period of the Roman Republic was characterized by a series of harsh military
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Whenever Rome conquered an area, they would raid it for slaves. Prisoners-of-war, in fact, was the main source of slaves. When conquests stopped; the main source of slaves dried up, there was less cheap labor---Hence, economic decline.
Rome needed more soldiers than Italy could provide; so she enlisted barbarians from her borders. As these areas became civilized, there were fewer barbarians---hence, fewer soldiers.
Another factor is that with peace and prosperity, cities grow. People in cities have a lower birth-rate than people in the country. So with bigger cities---net smaller population.
In short, though the Pax Romana was a great time to live; the long-term affects were a decline in Rome's economy, militarty strength, and population.