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The War of the Fifth Coalition, fought in the year 1809, pitted a coalition of the Austrian Empire and the United Kingdom against the French Empire and Bavaria. Major engagements between France and Austria, the main participants, unfolded over much of Central Europe from April to July, with very high casualty rates. Britain, already involved on the European continent in the ongoing Peninsular War, sent another expedition, the Walcheren Campaign, to the Netherlands in order to relieve the Austrians, although this effort had little impact on the outcome of the conflict. After much campaigning in Bavaria and across the Danube valley, the war ended favorably for the French after the bloody struggle at Wagram in early July, resulting in the Treaty of Schönbrunn . Although fighting in the Iberian Peninsula continued, the War of the Fifth Coalition was the last major conflict on the European continent until the French invasion of Russia in 1812 sparked the Sixth Coalition.
SlaveryThis decade marked the height of the Atlantic slave trade to the United States. During the period of 1798 and 1808, approximately 200,000 slaves were imported from Africa to the United States. Still, the abolitionist movement began to gain ground in this period. Britain enacted the Slave Trade Act 1807, which barred the trade of slaves in Great Britain (though slavery was still legal). The United States enacted a similar ban in 1808. However, Napoleon revoked the French Empire's ban on slavery with the Law of 20 May 1802.
World leaders North America United States President John Adams (1797–1801) President Thomas Jefferson (1801–1809) President James Madison (1809–1817) Haiti Jean-Jacques Dessalines (1801–1806) Alexandre Pétion (Republic of Haiti) (1806–1818) Henri Christophe (State/Kingdom of Haiti) (1807–1820) Western Europe Emperor Francis II (Holy Roman Empire) Pope Pius VII King Gustavus IV Adolphus (Sweden)
King Charles XIII (Sweden) King Christian VII (Denmark) and (Norway) (1766–1808) King Frederick VI (Denmark) (1808–1839) and (Norway) (1808–1814) First Consul/Emperor Napoleon I (First French Republic/First French Empire) ** King D. João VI (United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and Algarve) (1792–1826) King George III, (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland) King Charles IV (Spain)
Colonies North America Canada - a colony of Great Britain under the control of Secretary of State for War and the Colonies Russian America - Alaska down through parts of California were claimed by Russia during this time, commercialized through the establishment of the Russian-American Company New Spain - Present day Mexico, Central America, and the western United States were under the control of Spain during this decade South America Largely under colonial rule by Spain and Portugal. Spain was losing its grip due to problems at home, setting the stage for Spanish American wars of independence in the following decade.
Electricity See also: History of electromagnetism and History of electrochemistry A voltaic pile on display in the Tempio Voltiano. This decade contained some of the earliest experiments in electrochemistry. In 1800 Alessandro Volta constructed a voltaic pile, the first device to produce a large electric current, later known as the electric battery. Napoleon, informed of his works, summoned him in 1801 for a command performance of his experiments. He received many medals and decorations, including the Légion d'honneur. Also in 1800, William Nicholson and Johann Wilhelm Ritter succeeded in decomposing water into hydrogen and oxygen by electrolysis. Soon thereafter Ritter discovered the process of electroplating. He also observed that the amount of metal deposited and the amount of oxygen produced during an electrolytic process depended on the distance between the electrodes. By 1801 Ritter observed thermoelectric currents and anticipated the discovery of thermoelectricity by Thomas Johann Seebeck. In 1806, Humphry Davy decomposed potash and soda, employing a voltaic pile of approximately 250 cells, showing that these substances were respectively the oxides of potassium and sodium, which metals previously had been unknown. Employing a battery of 2,000 elements of a voltaic pile and charcoal enclosed in a vacuum, Davy gave the first public demonstration of the electric arc lamp in 1809.
Transportationteam travel started to become viable during this decade. In 1803, William Symington's Charlotte Dundas, generally considered to be the world's first practical steamboat, made her first voyage. Later, in 1807, Robert Fulton's North River Steamboat, the world's first commercially successful steamboat, made her maiden voyage. In 1801, Richard Trevithick ran a full-sized steam 'road locomotive' on the road in Camborne, England, followed by his 10-seater London Steam Carriage in 1803. In 1804, Trevithick built a prototype steam-powered railway locomotive. The first railway began operating during this time. The Surrey Iron Railway in Great Britain was established by the British Parliament in 1801, and began operation on 26 July 1803. The railway relied on horse-drawn cars rather than trains. In 1807, Isaac de Rivas made a hydrogen gas-powered vehicle, the first vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine. James Watt creates first steam engine based on Newcomen's design. Astronomy
The first known asteroids are discovered in this decade: Ceres (January 1, 1801). Ceres is reclassified as a dwarf planet in 2006. Pallas (March 28, 1802) Juno (September 1, 1804) Vesta (March 29, 1807
Other advances Invention of the Jacquard loom in 1801. Ultraviolet radiation is discovered by Johann Wilhelm Ritter in 1801. Flag semaphore is gradually adopted by various navies of the world. Morphine is isolated from opium for the first time in 1804. Nicolas Appert develops a method to preserve food by means of canning in 1809. John Dalton publishes his atomic theory 1803.
Music Ludwig van Beethoven's Symphony No. 1 premiers in Vienna in 1800. Bach's Sonatas and partitas for solo violin are published by Bote and Bock in 1802. Symphony No. 3 'Eroica' by Ludwig van Beethoven is completed in 1804. Fidelio by Ludwig van Beethoven is completed in 1805. Fourth Piano Concerto,Violin Concerto by Ludwig van Beethoven is completed in 1806. La Vestale by Gaspare Spontini is completed in 1807. Beethoven completes both his 5th Symphony and 6th Symphony "Pastoral" in 1808. Fashion Main article: 1795–1820 in fashion High-waisted dancing dress from 1809 Fashion in this period in European and European-influenced countries saw the final triumph of undress or informal styles over the brocades, lace, periwig, and powder of the earlier eighteenth century. Beau Brummel Fashionable women's clothing styles were based on the Empire silhouette — dresses were closely fitted to the torso just under the bust, falling loosely below. Inspired by neoclassical tastes, the short-waisted gowns sported soft, flowing skirts and were often made of white, almost transparent muslin, which was easily washed and draped loosely like the garments on Greek and Roman statues. No respectable woman would leave the house without a hat or bonnet. The antique head-dress, or Queen Mary coif, Chinese hat, Oriental inspired turban, and Highland helmet were popular. As for bonnets, their crowns and brims were adorned with increasingly elaborate ornamentations, such as feathers and ribbons. In fact, ladies of the day embellished their hats frequently, replacing old decorations with new trims or feathers. 1800–1809 was the height of dandyism in men's fashion in Europe, following the example of Beau Brummell. Older men, military officers, and those in conservative professions such as lawyers and physicians retained their wigs and powder into this period, but younger men of fashion wore their hair in short curls, often with long sideburns. This period saw the final abandonment of lace, embroidery, and other embellishment from serious men's clothing outside of formalized court dress. Instead, cut and tailoring became much more important as an indicator of quality.
and thats my summery of the 1800s
@paki how do u like it
@pooja195 @nincompoop @Luigi0210
I love history but im not very good at it
@dan815 @robtobey @radar