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a The most often cited official date of the end of the civil war is April 9, 1865 when General Robert E Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia at the McLean House in the village of Appomattox Court House.
b" Both Grant and Sherman knew that the losses had been great. Grant told his men to refrain from cheering their success in respect for the remaining and starving Confederate troops. Both Lee and Grant were saddened over the war.
They simply ran out of men and supplies. The blockade had increasingly starved them of the imports they needed, and Grant's ending of the system of prisoner-exchange meant that the Confederate lines would become too thin to hold.Their only hope was that Lincoln might lose the 1864 election (which he feared he would). But Sherman and Sheridan delivered some timely victories which restored Northern morale.