1.Describe the process scientists use when they study fossils. Include where fossils could be found and what steps scientists take to protect fossils, once they are discovered. (4 points)
2.Discuss, in detail, three things that we can learn from fossils. (15 points)
3.Choose three types of fossils. Describe their appearance and how they were formed. (6 points)
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ANSWER OF QUSETION 3.
A. Mold fossils (a fossilized impression made in the substrate - a negative image of the organism)
B. Trace fossils = ichnofossils (fossilized nests, gastroliths, burrows, footprints)
C. True form fossils (fossils of the actual animal or animal part).
How they formed :
A. Mold Fossils: A fossil formed when an animal, plant, or other organism dies and is covered by sediment, its flesh decays and bones deteriorate due to chemical reactions, and a cavity remains below the ground surface.
B. Trace fossils : Trace fossils may be impressions made on the substrate by an organism: for example, burrows, borings (bioerosion), footprints and feeding marks, and root cavities. The term in its broadest sense also includes the remains of other organic material produced by an organism - for example coprolites (fossilized droppings) or chemical markers - or sedimentological structures produced by biological means - for example, stromatolites. Trace fossils contrast with body fossils, which are the fossilised remains of parts of organisms' bodies, usually altered by later chemical activity or mineralisation.
C. True Form fossils: True Form fossils are formed when the animals soft tissues or hard parts did not decay over the years because they are trapped in sap that hardens to become amber. This evidence gives scientists the BEST observation of past plants and animals. The organism can be either a plant or an animal.