anonymous
  • anonymous
Let's go over the fundamental structures of an atom together!
Mathematics
  • Stacey Warren - Expert brainly.com
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jamiebookeater
  • jamiebookeater
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anonymous
  • anonymous
yay
anonymous
  • anonymous
Thanks
anonymous
  • anonymous
To begin with protons and neutrons as well as electrons are our homies. We all know them right?

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anonymous
  • anonymous
But how they actually play around with the naming systems like the atomic mass and atomic number and such... Worth going over them.
anonymous
  • anonymous
More over things like orbitals and energy levels and the fact that each energy level contains different number of orbitals....XD
anonymous
  • anonymous
So the textbook says our atomic mass is equal to how many protons and electrons are present in the nucleus, and this helps us identify the orbiting electrons as a result.
anonymous
  • anonymous
However even more fascinating is the notations they use
anonymous
  • anonymous
I am reading the isotopes section right now. The number of neutrons present alone can affect the entire structure of an atom. How fancy and cool
anonymous
  • anonymous
that's awesome
anonymous
  • anonymous
Ye
anonymous
  • anonymous
Did you know the most outer orbital is named as valence shell? That sounds so bad use
anonymous
  • anonymous
*uss
anonymous
  • anonymous
Discovery of knowledge is beautiful
anonymous
  • anonymous
And obviously electrons situated in the most outer orbital are called valence electrons
anonymous
  • anonymous
Oh by the way I just figured aluminum has 3 electrons in the valence shell and according to the diagram system called electron shell diagram Aluminum is considered extremely reactive with other elements because it has 3 electrons which are not fully conformed with 8 electrons usually in each orbital.
anonymous
  • anonymous
Hey Ganashie Join us too
anonymous
  • anonymous
We are having recap session of our high school university introductory chem
anonymous
  • anonymous
@ganeshie8
ganeshie8
  • ganeshie8
Please continue... I'm just not good wid these haha!
anonymous
  • anonymous
Ok. Now we are comparing Lewis Dot diagram and electron shell diagram!
anonymous
  • anonymous
Can anyone tell the difference between them?
anonymous
  • anonymous
It's actually so cute
anonymous
  • anonymous
Yup
ganeshie8
  • ganeshie8
I think dot diagram only tells about the valence shell
anonymous
  • anonymous
Yeah! You are right on the spot give yourself a medal Ganashie!
anonymous
  • anonymous
So this goofy guy Lewis came up with a convenient method of identifying an element by just looking at the number of valence electrons situated in the valence orbit
anonymous
  • anonymous
How convenient! Whereas electron shell diagram shows all the electrons from inside out so that's like running your fingers from your mouth to rectum
ganeshie8
  • ganeshie8
We only care about valence electrons in chemical reactions is it
anonymous
  • anonymous
Yeah
anonymous
  • anonymous
It's fascinating how they disregard other orbitals except for valence orbit because that mostly determines the reactivity of an element. Take ammonia for example
anonymous
  • anonymous
Also depends on the type of bonding in a compound which goes a long list but on just atomic scale valence electrons are only reponsibles for reaction
freckles
  • freckles
Hey! I think I remember something about each "ring" of the atom can only allow a certain amount of electrons right? What was that pattern of numbers for allowance? Or is this not true?
anonymous
  • anonymous
Take water for example. Notice how water doesn't just spill out of the cup when it's full but it goes like 1-2mm higher than the cup
anonymous
  • anonymous
@freckles Yes you are right
anonymous
  • anonymous
They are called energy levels or electron configurations
ganeshie8
  • ganeshie8
I think it has to do with afbou principle
anonymous
  • anonymous
Actually water's compound is V shaped and has dipole dipole attractions
anonymous
  • anonymous
So they tend to stick with each other.
ganeshie8
  • ganeshie8
I remember water is a polar molecule idk if it is a molecule or compound anymore lol
freckles
  • freckles
I don't know about the polar part. But water is a molecule.. I don't know what a compound is.
anonymous
  • anonymous
I think it is both
anonymous
  • anonymous
compound-substance composed of two or more elements
anonymous
  • anonymous
but I think molecule holds true too
freckles
  • freckles
so is dioxide a compound since there are two elements...or do the elements have to be distinct.
anonymous
  • anonymous
molecule doesn't necessitate the presence of more than 2 different elements
ganeshie8
  • ganeshie8
so H2 is a molecule but not a compound because it is made up of pure H atoms is it
anonymous
  • anonymous
You're very enthusiastic Robert, and that's good! Keep up your work
anonymous
  • anonymous
Yeah it appears so
anonymous
  • anonymous
We call them oxygen molecules but not oxygen compounds
anonymous
  • anonymous
A compound is any collection of atoms or molecules, which are CHEMICALLY combined in a fixed ratio by mass
anonymous
  • anonymous
compounds implies "mixture" "combination"
anonymous
  • anonymous
a bit off topic but you guys might enjoy https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hb8P9N4KGm8 or https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eqtuNXWT0mo
anonymous
  • anonymous
@Nishant_Garg you said compounds are in "set ratio". Whereas molecules are also set ratio aren't they
anonymous
  • anonymous
Or the means by which these elements bond-like ionic bonding (due to force of attraction from positively charged or negatively charged atoms) or covalent bonding(sharing of electrons from valence orbital)
anonymous
  • anonymous
Example of this is sodium. Notice the name sodium chloride. Sodium ions attracted to negatively charged chloride ions.
anonymous
  • anonymous
Recap:ions are either positively charged or negatively charged atoms.
ganeshie8
  • ganeshie8
Intuitively, it seems that ionic bonding cannot happen in a molecule because neither wins/loses as both atoms are same
anonymous
  • anonymous
They seem to compensate with each other via double boding.
anonymous
  • anonymous
Oh never forget there is also triple bonding too.
anonymous
  • anonymous
With the exception of hydrogen bonding
anonymous
  • anonymous
A molecule is the smallest unit of a compound, just like how atom is to element For example a very big compound maybe made of just 1 type of molecule repeated several times (this happens in organic chemistry) So H2 can infact be considered a compound, it's chemically bonded, it's ratio by mass is 1:1 between both hydrogen atoms
anonymous
  • anonymous
however people usually talk of H2 as H2 molecules
anonymous
  • anonymous
i never actually found out what an atom looks like, would you go over some models that quantum mechanics provides ?
ganeshie8
  • ganeshie8
I know Si, in its pure form, forms a crystal structure sharing one electron(covalent bonding) with each of its four surrounding Si atoms so that the valence shell contains 8 electrons which happens to be the stable configuration that mother nature likes
anonymous
  • anonymous
Yeah especially when it comes to carbon chain bonding in organic chemistry it becomes tediously long.
anonymous
  • anonymous
Oh by the way there is also "chain" as well just like there is compound and molecule.
ganeshie8
  • ganeshie8
A compound is a molecule that contains at least two different elements. All compounds are molecules but not all molecules are compounds. Molecular hydrogen (H2), molecular oxygen (O2) and molecular nitrogen (N2) are not compounds because each is composed of a single element. @Nishant_Garg google gives that
anonymous
  • anonymous
Hmm true, because it's the same atom
ganeshie8
  • ganeshie8
Based on that definition, we cannot say H2, N2 etc are compounds...
anonymous
  • anonymous
Yeah like I said compound implies mixture to my ear does it to yours?
anonymous
  • anonymous
Yep it must be different atoms now that I remember for a compound
anonymous
  • anonymous
whereas molecule has a tone of "moles" which is important in stoichiometry
anonymous
  • anonymous
However covalent bonding may differentiate the subtle structure of molecules from ionic bonding...
anonymous
  • anonymous
For most molecules I know are bonded with covalent bonding
anonymous
  • anonymous
mixture is just a mix of different atoms in no definite proportion and not chemically combined, it's quite different from a compound I think
anonymous
  • anonymous
However compounds..... yeah ionic bonding with cation and anion being attracted to each other
ganeshie8
  • ganeshie8
yeah mixture is more like physical term..
anonymous
  • anonymous
yeah but I meant the etymology of compound
anonymous
  • anonymous
Electronegativity?
anonymous
  • anonymous
and convalent bonding
anonymous
  • anonymous
water is polar covalent bond
anonymous
  • anonymous
denoted by asymmetrical structure.
anonymous
  • anonymous
Whereas methane is not. Because the compound appears symmetrical.

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