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To begin with protons and neutrons as well as electrons are our homies. We all know them right?
But how they actually play around with the naming systems like the atomic mass and atomic number and such... Worth going over them.
More over things like orbitals and energy levels and the fact that each energy level contains different number of orbitals....XD
So the textbook says our atomic mass is equal to how many protons and electrons are present in the nucleus, and this helps us identify the orbiting electrons as a result.
However even more fascinating is the notations they use
I am reading the isotopes section right now. The number of neutrons present alone can affect the entire structure of an atom. How fancy and cool
Did you know the most outer orbital is named as valence shell? That sounds so bad use
Discovery of knowledge is beautiful
And obviously electrons situated in the most outer orbital are called valence electrons
Oh by the way I just figured aluminum has 3 electrons in the valence shell and according to the diagram system called electron shell diagram Aluminum is considered extremely reactive with other elements because it has 3 electrons which are not fully conformed with 8 electrons usually in each orbital.
Hey Ganashie Join us too
We are having recap session of our high school university introductory chem
Please continue... I'm just not good wid these haha!
Ok. Now we are comparing Lewis Dot diagram and electron shell diagram!
Can anyone tell the difference between them?
It's actually so cute
I think dot diagram only tells about the valence shell
Yeah! You are right on the spot give yourself a medal Ganashie!
So this goofy guy Lewis came up with a convenient method of identifying an element by just looking at the number of valence electrons situated in the valence orbit
How convenient! Whereas electron shell diagram shows all the electrons from inside out so that's like running your fingers from your mouth to rectum
We only care about valence electrons in chemical reactions is it
It's fascinating how they disregard other orbitals except for valence orbit because that mostly determines the reactivity of an element. Take ammonia for example
Also depends on the type of bonding in a compound which goes a long list but on just atomic scale valence electrons are only reponsibles for reaction
Hey! I think I remember something about each "ring" of the atom can only allow a certain amount of electrons right? What was that pattern of numbers for allowance? Or is this not true?
Take water for example. Notice how water doesn't just spill out of the cup when it's full but it goes like 1-2mm higher than the cup
@freckles Yes you are right
They are called energy levels or electron configurations
I think it has to do with afbou principle
Actually water's compound is V shaped and has dipole dipole attractions
So they tend to stick with each other.
I remember water is a polar molecule idk if it is a molecule or compound anymore lol
I don't know about the polar part. But water is a molecule.. I don't know what a compound is.
I think it is both
compound-substance composed of two or more elements
but I think molecule holds true too
so is dioxide a compound since there are two elements...or do the elements have to be distinct.
molecule doesn't necessitate the presence of more than 2 different elements
so H2 is a molecule but not a compound because it is made up of pure H atoms is it
You're very enthusiastic Robert, and that's good! Keep up your work
Yeah it appears so
We call them oxygen molecules but not oxygen compounds
A compound is any collection of atoms or molecules, which are CHEMICALLY combined in a fixed ratio by mass
compounds implies "mixture" "combination"
a bit off topic but you guys might enjoy https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hb8P9N4KGm8 or https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eqtuNXWT0mo
@Nishant_Garg you said compounds are in "set ratio". Whereas molecules are also set ratio aren't they
Or the means by which these elements bond-like ionic bonding (due to force of attraction from positively charged or negatively charged atoms) or covalent bonding(sharing of electrons from valence orbital)
Example of this is sodium. Notice the name sodium chloride. Sodium ions attracted to negatively charged chloride ions.
Recap:ions are either positively charged or negatively charged atoms.
Intuitively, it seems that ionic bonding cannot happen in a molecule because neither wins/loses as both atoms are same
They seem to compensate with each other via double boding.
Oh never forget there is also triple bonding too.
With the exception of hydrogen bonding
A molecule is the smallest unit of a compound, just like how atom is to element For example a very big compound maybe made of just 1 type of molecule repeated several times (this happens in organic chemistry) So H2 can infact be considered a compound, it's chemically bonded, it's ratio by mass is 1:1 between both hydrogen atoms
however people usually talk of H2 as H2 molecules
i never actually found out what an atom looks like, would you go over some models that quantum mechanics provides ?
I know Si, in its pure form, forms a crystal structure sharing one electron(covalent bonding) with each of its four surrounding Si atoms so that the valence shell contains 8 electrons which happens to be the stable configuration that mother nature likes
Yeah especially when it comes to carbon chain bonding in organic chemistry it becomes tediously long.
Oh by the way there is also "chain" as well just like there is compound and molecule.
A compound is a molecule that contains at least two different elements. All compounds are molecules but not all molecules are compounds. Molecular hydrogen (H2), molecular oxygen (O2) and molecular nitrogen (N2) are not compounds because each is composed of a single element. @Nishant_Garg google gives that
Hmm true, because it's the same atom
Based on that definition, we cannot say H2, N2 etc are compounds...
Yeah like I said compound implies mixture to my ear does it to yours?
Yep it must be different atoms now that I remember for a compound
whereas molecule has a tone of "moles" which is important in stoichiometry
However covalent bonding may differentiate the subtle structure of molecules from ionic bonding...
For most molecules I know are bonded with covalent bonding
mixture is just a mix of different atoms in no definite proportion and not chemically combined, it's quite different from a compound I think
However compounds..... yeah ionic bonding with cation and anion being attracted to each other
yeah mixture is more like physical term..
yeah but I meant the etymology of compound
and convalent bonding
water is polar covalent bond
denoted by asymmetrical structure.
Whereas methane is not. Because the compound appears symmetrical.