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- Abhisar

How many coordinate bonds are there in \(\sf SO_3\) molecule and how?
Why \(\sf SO_3\) has 2 dative bonds?

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- Abhisar

- jamiebookeater

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- Abhisar

Got it, i'll leave a reply in case any body looks up.
Let's draw lewis dot structure of \(\sf SO_3\) first.
|dw:1439384639045:dw|

- Abhisar

There are only 6 electrons in the valence shell of sulfur so it can make one more bond with any of the one oxygen atom.
|dw:1439384821543:dw|

- Abhisar

|dw:1439385110913:dw|
If we check formal charges on the atoms, we see that
\(\sf O_1\) has 0 FC
\(\sf O_2\) and \(\sf O_3\) has -1 each and sulfur has a +2 FC. These appear to be quite high formal charges so there must be another structure which will be more stable.
Also, we know that sulfur is a period 3 element and hence it can have more than 8 (upto 12)electrons in its outer valence shell due to the presence of vacant 3d orbitals. So sulfur will form 2 dative bonds with the rest of two oxygen atom.

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- Abhisar

|dw:1439385229312:dw|
Also note that formal charge on each of the atoms is 0 now which means it's very stable structure.

- Photon336

Superb explanation

- Abhisar

PS: In some books you will find rigorous implementation of octet rule on sulfur. In that case there will be a total of 1 double bond and 2 dative bonds.
|dw:1439439046279:dw|

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