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@jadam320 the atomic number usually at the bottom left corner, is the number of protons in an element. the number of protons is the identity of your element, and those equal the number of electrons if the element is (neutral)
the mass number is the number of protons + neutrons. if you want to find the number of neutrons you subtract the mass number (on top) of element from the (atomic number) and you get your number of neutrons.
Now, sodium 23, we look at sodium on the periodic table and we see 11, now what does that mean? 11 = our atomic number the number of protons and electrons. but that's for a neutral sodium atom.
now we know that sodium has a charge of +1 so what does that mean?
it means that our sodium atom has lost an electron, so now it has 10 electrons and 11 protons. we know that electrons have a negative charge so what we do is -10+11 = +1 and that's where the +1 comes from. remember whenever an element loses an electron to give us a positive charge it becomes a cation.
now to find the number of neutrons, all we need to do is subtract 11 from our mass number which is 23. (23-11) = 12
so we have 12 neutrons, 11 protons, and 10 electrons. in this sodium cation.